CA Technologies
CA, INC. (Form: 10-K, Received: 05/12/2016 16:12:17)

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
 
ü
Annual Report Pursuant To Section 13 or 15(d) of
the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended March 31, 2016
 
OR
 
Transition Report Pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of
the Securities Exchange Act of 1934
Commission file number 1-9247
CA, Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
 
13-2857434
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
520 Madison Avenue,
New York, New York
 

10022
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
 
(Zip Code)
1-800-225-5224
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
(Title of each class)
 
(Name of each exchange on which registered)
Common Stock, par value $0.10 per share
Stock Purchase Rights Preferred Stock, Class A
 
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes     ü     No         
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.   Yes          No    ü    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.   Yes     ü     No         
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).   Yes     ü     No         
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    ü    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer     ü     Accelerated filer          Non-accelerated filer          Smaller reporting company         
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes           No    ü    
The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of September 30, 2015 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was approximately $8.4 billion based on the closing price of $27.30 on the NASDAQ Stock Market LLC on that date.
The number of shares of each of the registrant’s classes of common stock outstanding at May 5, 2016 was 416,772,947 shares of common stock, par value $0.10 per share.
Documents Incorporated by Reference:
Part III: Portions of the Proxy Statement to be issued in conjunction with the registrant’s 2016 Annual Meeting of Stockholders.


Table of Contents


CA, Inc.
Table of Contents
Part I
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Part II
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Part III
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Part IV
 
 
 
 
 


2


This Annual Report on Form 10-K (Form 10-K) contains certain forward-looking information relating to CA, Inc. (which we refer to as the “Company,” “Registrant,” “CA Technologies,” “CA,” “we,” “our,” or “us”) that is based on the beliefs of, and assumptions made by, our management as well as information currently available to management. When used in this Form 10-K, the words “believes,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “expects,” “estimates,” “targets,” and similar expressions relating to the future are intended to identify forward-looking information. Forward-looking information includes, for example, not only the statements relating to the future made under the caption “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under Item 7, but also statements relating to the future that appear in other parts of this Form 10-K. This forward-looking information reflects our current views with respect to future events and is subject to certain risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, some of which are described under the caption “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A and elsewhere in this Form 10-K. Should one or more of these risks or uncertainties occur, or should our assumptions prove incorrect, actual results may vary materially from the forward-looking information described in this Form 10-K as believed, planned, anticipated, expected, estimated, targeted or similarly identified. We do not intend to update these forward-looking statements.
The declaration and payment of future dividends by the Company is subject to the determination of the Company’s Board of Directors (the Board), in its sole discretion, after considering various factors, including the Company’s financial condition, historical and forecast operating results, and available cash flow, as well as any applicable laws and contractual covenants and any other relevant factors. The Company’s practice regarding payment of dividends may be modified at any time and from time to time.
Repurchases under the Company’s stock repurchase program may be made from time to time, subject to market conditions and other factors, in the open market, through solicited or unsolicited privately negotiated transactions or otherwise. The program does not obligate the Company to acquire any particular amount of common stock, and it may be modified or suspended at any time at the Company’s discretion.
The product and service names mentioned in this Form 10-K are used for identification purposes only and may be protected by trademarks, trade names, service marks and/or other intellectual property rights of the Company and/or other parties in the United States and/or other jurisdictions. The absence of a specific attribution in connection with any such mark does not constitute a waiver of any such right. All other trademarks, trade names, service marks and logos referenced herein belong to their respective companies.
References in this Form 10-K to fiscal 2016 , fiscal 2015 , fiscal 2014 and fiscal 2013 , etc. are to our fiscal years ended on March 31, 2016 , 2015 , 2014 and 2013 , etc., respectively.



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Part I

Item 1. Business.
Overview
CA Technologies is a global leader in software solutions enabling customers to plan, develop, manage and secure applications and enterprise environments across distributed, cloud, mobile and mainframe platforms. Most of the Global Fortune 500, as well as many government agencies around the world, rely on CA to help manage their increasingly dynamic and complex environments.
In every industry, we see customers transforming their businesses to better manage the market demands for speed, exceptional customer experience and rich analytics. Their journey, which is broadly referred to as digital transformation, is fueled by software. The proliferation of mobile devices and the expectation of seamless connectivity has driven users to demand highly secure, frictionless user experiences via software applications (often referred to as “applications” or “apps”). We refer to this market shift as the “Application Economy” and it is profoundly changing the way businesses provide services to customers and build software. Around the world, these complementary trends are placing software at the heart of every business, driving companies in every industry vertical to invest in the creation of in-house software development teams to build out new business models, enhance their digital presence and support their on-going relationships with customers.
We address this opportunity with three distinct but highly complementary operating segments: Enterprise Solutions, Mainframe Solutions and Services. These also represent the operating segments used by our Chief Executive Officer for evaluating our performance and allocating resources. Refer to Note 17, “Segment and Geographic Information,” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for financial data pertaining to our segment and geographic operations.
Our Enterprise Solutions segment includes products that are designed for distributed and cloud computing environments and run on industry standard servers. Within Enterprise Solutions, our areas of focus include:
Agile Management enables customers to more effectively plan and manage the software development process and the business of IT service delivery. Our solutions enable customers to improve delivery time on large projects, reduce costs and optimize resources. This positions CA to partner with and guide customers early in the business transformation process.
CA Agile Central. The acquisition of Rally Software Development Corp. (Rally) during fiscal 2016 gives us the ability to help customers with their transition from the traditional waterfall methodology of software development (serial processes) to the Agile methodology (iterative work cadences that decrease time-to-market and increase product quality). It allows businesses to collaboratively plan, prioritize and track software development work at scale, across the enterprise.
CA Project & Portfolio Management (PPM). Our solutions enable customers to improve their decision processes and resource optimizations of technology investments and decrease project execution risk. This foundational piece of our Agile Management strategy is complementary to CA Agile Central.
CA Service Management. Our solutions empower corporate IT teams to speed up and streamline service desk operations while reducing complex and repetitive tasks with comprehensive automation capabilities and simple configuration.
DevOps is adjacent to Agile Management and comprises a range of solutions that allow customers to efficiently deliver and manage applications and IT infrastructure. With our portfolio of solutions, customers can reduce the delivery time of new applications, increase the frequency of new releases and dramatically improve quality.
Application Program Interface Management (API Management). Our solutions help enterprises and organizations connect more directly to end-users via mobile apps, cloud platforms and the ‘Internet of Things’ through APIs, or application program interfaces, which are the building blocks of application and software development. Our API Management solutions simplify and secure application development, and facilitate the integration of legacy systems with modern applications - all of which enable the monetization of data. New solutions include CA Live API Creator which enables customers to rapidly create API connectors from data sources like MongoDB and Oracle SQL, supporting developers’ accelerating pace of innovation. Additionally, CA Mobile App Services provides common back-end services, like open software development kits and APIs to enable rapid development of enterprise-class mobile applications.

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Continuous Delivery. Our solutions optimize application development processes by automating the deployment of applications across all stages of their lifecycles. Our three primary solutions are: CA Service Virtualization , which eliminates constraints in development and testing by modeling and simulating the behavior and performance characteristics of dependent systems and services enabling defects to be identified quickly and improving time-to-market; CA Release Automation , which automates and orchestrates the complex process of deploying and promoting new application capabilities from planning through development and production; and CA Test Data Manager , which automates the creation and management of the test data needed to test evolving applications.
Application Performance Management (APM). Application availability for the end user is dependent on a series of disparate systems performing in concert. Our APM   solutions provide deep application diagnostics, end-user experience monitoring, synthetic monitoring and analytics to proactively identify and fix issues before users are impacted. Our APM solutions scale and manage billions of transactions, across diverse enterprise applications and platforms, including Amazon Web Services™ (AWS).
Infrastructure Management. Our solutions offer a unified approach to monitoring and managing network, server and storage performance, whether they are contained within traditional data centers or diverse cloud environments. Our solutions provide operations teams in some of the largest IT organizations in the world with rapid access to the information needed to improve service quality, predictability and efficiency. CA Unified Infrastructure Management (UIM) enables monitoring and management of server, storage and network devices, including in public cloud environments such as AWS™ and Microsoft AZURE™.
Security includes a comprehensive set of solutions to address the growing concern across all enterprises and organizations regarding external and internal threats to their environments and the critical data they contain. Security is often a top ranked spending priority among Chief Information Officers (CIOs) and Chief Information Security Officers (CISOs), with the majority projecting increasing spend year-over-year. Our identity-centric security portfolio allows customers to manage identities and regulate access from the device to the data center, providing a complete, end-to-end, and multi-channel security solution. This empowers customers to centrally manage and control access to applications and data in both on-premise and cloud deployments, and across web, mobile and API channels.
Privileged Access Management (PAM). Privileged users, or users who have elevated access or administrator rights, are commonly the targets of data breach attempts. Our acquisition of Xceedium, Inc. (Xceedium) during fiscal 2016 expanded our PAM solutions that enable customers to control and monitor privileged user access and activity, detecting and preventing the threat of internal and external attacks.
Identity Management. We offer a unified solution with user provisioning, user management and governance for identities throughout their lifecycle, providing timely and compliant access to applications and data.
Advanced Authentication. We offer risk-based and credential-based authentication enabling customers to comply with regulatory mandates in authenticating employees, partners and consumers with a frictionless user experience.
Single Sign-On (SSO). Our solutions provide secure single sign-on and flexible access management to web applications on-premise or in the cloud.
Payment Security. We offer a SaaS-based payment card enrollment and authentication service to help banks protect against fraud and ensure a hassle-free online shopping experience for their customers.
Our Mainframe Solutions are designed for the IBM z Systems™ mainframe platform, which runs many of our largest customers' mission-critical business applications, with a focus on lowering cost per transaction, while increasing business agility, security and compliance. With greater than 70% of corporate data still transacted and secured on mainframe systems and the number of data transactions growing due to mobile application usage and the Internet of Things, we are viewed as a long-term strategic partner to our largest customers. Within Mainframe Solutions, our areas of focus include:
Application Development solutions help enable agile development processes, modernize applications and enable collaboration across the mobile to mainframe teams.
Databases and Database Management solutions help customers manage the growth and increasing complexity of data and allow them to address their ever-evolving data management needs and enable web and mobile access of data.
Security & Compliance solutions manage risk and ensure regulatory compliance across the enterprise with modern tools. Our solutions reduce risk from unauthorized access, secure mainframe assets, monitor instances that affect compliance and discover sensitive data. Our solutions secure data at rest and in motion, across the enterprise.
Systems and Operations Management portfolio provides customers with a unified view of their z Systems performance, including their applications, middleware, networks, systems, storage and data.

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Our Enterprise Solutions and Mainframe Solutions segments are complementary and strengthen each other. First, our customers benefit from the ability of CA solutions to span their entire infrastructure stack, across distributed, cloud and mainframe. This is critical as customers focus on their end users’ experiences on their apps and the underlying transactions that traverse their heterogeneous environment. CA is one of the few companies positioned to deliver solutions that span cloud, open systems and mainframe environments, reducing our customers’ cost of ownership and improving their time to service error resolution. Second, we are able to leverage our core strengths and development efforts in our products within the Enterprise Solutions segment to bring new innovations to the mainframe. This continued investment sustains ongoing customer commitment to our mainframe solutions. From our Agile and Security expertise to UIM and APM solutions specifically tailored for the mainframe, our customers benefit from our synergistic portfolio. Third, the Enterprise Solutions segment benefits from CA’s heritage in running mission critical applications for many of the world’s largest companies. This gives us access to decision makers and consideration for new sales opportunities that would otherwise be more difficult to obtain. Finally, CA benefits from the operational and financial synergies that are the result of our expertise in both segments.
Services  helps customers reach their IT and business goals primarily by enabling the rapid implementation and adoption of our mainframe and enterprise solutions. Our professional services team consists of experienced professionals who provide a variety of services, such as consulting, implementation, application management services, education and support services, to both commercial and government customers. With approximately 1,000 certified consultants, architects, project managers and advisors located in 30 countries and an extensive partner ecosystem, CA Services works with customers to navigate complex business and technology challenges and deliver the services that best meet the customer’s business goals throughout the entire solution lifecycle. In fiscal 2016, as a result of our acquisition of Rally, Agile coaches, whose primary focus is training customers on the implementation of the Agile software development methodology, are incorporated into the Services segment.
Business Strategy
Our goal is to be the world’s leading independent software provider for IT management and security solutions that help organizations and enterprises plan, develop, manage, and secure modern software environments, across mainframe, distributed, cloud and mobile platforms. To accomplish this, key elements of our strategy include:
Drive organic innovation. Our product development strategy is built around key growth areas, where we are focused on innovating and delivering differentiated products and solutions across both distributed and mainframe. We are focused on developing solutions that are easy to use, easy to implement and have a low total cost of ownership. A key element of our organic innovation approach is the broad adoption of the Agile methodology to govern our software development process, which we believe will improve our product development time-to-market, quality and relevance, and support our customer success initiatives.
Incubate technology for next generation products. We are researching and dedicating resources to the development of emerging technologies that are logical extensions of our core areas of focus. We are working on opportunities in areas such as containers, data analytics, big data and open source, some of which may become enhancements or extensions of our current product portfolio and others may evolve to new product categories.
Pursue new business models and expanded routes to market.   While our traditional on-premise software delivery remains core to many enterprise customers, we see cloud-based and try-and-buy models as increasingly attractive for our customers. These models simplify their decision-making and accelerate the value they can derive from new solution investments. New delivery models allow us to extend our market reach, speed adoption of our solutions, improve our efficiencies and compete more effectively for a larger number of customers globally. As such, our new product development is focused on our customers’ need for solutions that are simple and cost-effective to buy, install, deploy, manage and secure.
Expand relationships with our global customer base and address opportunities with new and underserved customers. We are focused on maintaining and expanding the strong relationships with our established customer base, and will proactively target growth with other potential customers that we do not currently serve. In parallel, we are seeking to broaden our customer base to new buyers in geographic regions we have underserved. The emerging roles of CISOs and Chief Development Officers impacts who and where IT environment purchasing decisions are made within our customers. This shift aligns with the product portfolio decisions we are making across our solutions set to meet our customers' accelerating need for speed and agility. We are refining our sales, services, marketing and customer success resources to reach beyond the customers’ CIO and IT department to serve these new customer roles and respond to changes in customer buying behaviors.
Execute strategic and disciplined technology acquisitions. We intend to supplement our organic innovation efforts with key technology acquisitions that are within or adjacent to our core areas of focus. We conduct a thorough acquisition process, which includes build vs. buy analysis and opportunity identification, detailed business case modeling, rigorous due diligence and extensive integration, to fully realize the value of our acquisitions.

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Fiscal 2016 Business Developments and Highlights
The following are significant developments and highlights relating to our business during fiscal 2016:
In June 2015, Otto Berkes joined as Chief Technology Officer and is leading our targeted research and development efforts for next generation products and enhancements.
In July 2015, we completed our acquisition of Rally, a leading provider of Agile development software and services.
In August 2015, Ayman Sayed joined as Chief Product Officer and is driving increased agility, efficiency and discipline across the product organization, while focusing on the development of secure, easy to install, and easy to manage solutions to solve customer problems.
In August 2015, we completed our acquisition of Xceedium, a privately held provider of privileged identity management solutions that protect on-premise, cloud and hybrid IT environments.
In August 2015, we issued   $400 million   of   3.600%   Senior Notes due August 2020.
In October 2015, we entered into an agreement with Bank of America, N.A. for a $300 million term loan with a maturity date of April 20, 2022.
In November 2015, we repurchased 22 million shares from Careal Holding, AG for an aggregate price of $590 million, effectively completing our $1 billion share repurchase authorization.
In November 2015, we held our user conference, CA World ‘15. This event showcased our unique strength in serving customers in the Application Economy. The event highlighted our solutions as well as our vision of the future to thousands of customers and partners.
In November 2015, our Board of Directors approved a new stock repurchase program that authorized us to acquire up to $750 million of our common stock. At March 31, 2016, the new $750 million stock repurchase program remained fully outstanding.
In November 2015, we announced our intention to increase our dividend in fiscal 2017, subject to quarterly Board approval, to $1.02 per share for the year, or $0.255 per share on a quarterly basis. This would be an increase from the current $1.00 per share annual dividend, or $0.25 per share on a quarterly basis.
Seasonality
Some of our business results are seasonally weighted toward the second half of our fiscal year, including cash flow from operations and total bookings. However, these business results may not always follow this pattern during a fiscal year. Given the varying durations and dollar amounts of the contracts being renewed, year-over-year comparisons of total bookings are not always indicative of the overall total bookings trend.
Customers
We currently serve customers across most major industries worldwide, including banks, insurance companies, other financial services providers, government agencies, global IT service providers, telecommunication providers, manufacturers, technology companies, retailers, educational organizations and health care institutions. Our traditional customers generally consist of large enterprises that have computing environments from multiple vendors and are highly complex. As the emergence of cloud computing has democratized the technology landscape, we have increased our focus on addressing a broader customer set.
No single customer accounted for 10% or more of our total revenue for fiscal 2016, 2015 or 2014. Approximately 7% and 8% of our total revenue backlog at March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively, is associated with multi-year contracts signed with the U.S. federal government and other U.S. state and local government agencies which are generally subject to: annual fiscal funding approval; renegotiation or termination at the discretion of the government; or both.
Sales and Marketing
We offer our solutions through our direct sales force and indirectly through our partners. We remain focused on strengthening relationships with our core customers and partners - approximately our top 500 accounts, which we refer to as our “Platinum” accounts - through product leadership, account management and a differentiated customer experience. We believe enhanced relationships in our traditional customer base of large enterprises with multi-year enterprise license agreements will drive renewals and provide opportunities to increase account penetration that will help to drive revenue growth.

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We are working to accelerate the velocity of our sales transactions by dedicating sales resources and deploying additional solutions to address opportunities to sell to new enterprises and to expand our relationship with existing non-Platinum customers - which we refer to as our “Named” and “Growth/Partners” (or Partner-led) customers. Named customers are large potential customers with whom we currently do not have a strong presence and where a competitor often has an established relationship. Growth/Partners customers are mid-size potential customers with whom we currently do not have a strong presence and generally address through partners. Additionally, we have implemented broad-based business initiatives to drive continued improvement in sales execution. We are continuing to shift to a more product-driven sales approach, using real-time data and intelligence to drive on-going evolution of our go-to-market strategy towards the highest potential and highest-yielding markets.
Our sales organization operates globally, with groups serving the North America (NA); Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA); Latin America (LA); and Asia Pacific and Japan (APJ) geographies. We operate through branches, subsidiaries and partners around the world. Approximately 36% and 39% of our revenue in fiscal 2016 and 2015, respectively, was from operations outside of the United States. At March 31, 2016 and 2015, we had approximately 2,500 sales and sales support personnel.
Marketing has played a key role in the ongoing transformation of CA Technologies into a company that is focused on the Application Economy. Based on research conducted across global markets, we believe that CA Technologies’ brand positioning, “Business, rewritten by software,™” is resonating, and that marketing campaigns are positively influencing key reputation metrics and future consideration of CA Technologies in purchase decisions. In particular, marketing has succeeded in narrowing the gap between historical market perceptions of CA Technologies and our current portfolio of capability.
We have sharpened our focus and processes to better reach new customers to drive higher velocity and a broadening customer mix. Our marketing and sales organizations are utilizing common systems and analytics to initiate and respond to market opportunities, optimize resources, maximize efficiency and drive awareness and consideration of the CA brand and portfolio capabilities across our broad base of customers and prospects.
Marketing has refreshed CA World, our annual conference aimed at customers and partners. Quantitative and qualitative results from CA World ‘15 are positive with key metrics such as overall attendance, customer engagement, pipeline generation, and broad visibility across both traditional and social media outlets.
Partners
CA Partners represent a foundational component of our go-to-market strategy. Our objective is to leverage our solutions and our partners’ strengths to deliver unparalleled value and an exceptional customer experience. We believe this strategy fosters sustained, profitable growth for both CA and our partners. Our data-driven approach of aligning our global partner strategy with channel trends and dynamic changes in the industry enables us to match our offerings and investments to specific markets.
CA works with partners in all our geographic regions and focuses on five key routes to market:
Resellers derive a significant amount of revenue from the resale of third-party products. We are working with a number of key strategic national and regional reseller partners to expand our global reach.
Global service providers provide a platform for application infrastructure or cloud-based services. We are working to establish long-term partnerships to support the development of innovative, differentiated services.
Global system integrators offer our software within their business practices, leveraging their process design, planning, and vertical expertise to provide holistic solutions and implementation services to our joint customers.
Managed service providers leverage our solutions to power their subscription-based IT services. We work together to deliver differentiated, high-value managed services.
Global technology partners ( including Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) and Infrastructure and Cloud Vendors) offer an opportunity for joint solutions innovation and CA brand awareness.
Customer Success
The Customer Success organization is made up of customer experience designers, customer advocates, technical support engineers, community managers and an advanced customer data analytics team that together have one common goal: deliver a superior end-to-end customer experience that creates and sustains satisfaction and loyalty, and serves as a source of competitive advantage for CA.
The Customer Success teams work with customers to understand their unique business challenges to help maximize the value of their current investments in our solutions. The Customer Success team aligns with members from education, support, services, partners and development to drive customer adoption, facilitate product expansion and to provide maximum return in minimal time.
CA Support engineers work with customers post-sale to assist in migration and upgrades, resolve issues 24/7, and create self-help knowledge documentation. CA Support operates in 27 locations worldwide, providing assistance in 10 languages while consistently earning industry-leading customer satisfaction ratings.

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Throughout the customer experience, customers are encouraged to join online communities to interact and engage with their peers, partners, and CA experts. We have more than 40,000 community members in over 40 communities who network, ask and answer questions, and share knowledge about our solutions.
Research and Development
We have approximately 4,700 employees globally who design, develop, and support our software. We operate principal research and development centers across the US, including New York, California, Colorado, Texas, Illinois and Massachusetts. Internationally, we have principal centers in Prague, Czech Republic as well as Hyderabad and Bangalore, India.
In fiscal 2016, research and development focused on three main areas: accelerating development cycles and improving quality through increased adoption of Agile methodologies and the internal use of our CA Agile Central and DevOps products; focusing on the development of solutions that are easy for customers to install, use and maintain; and increasing quality and stability in our broadly deployed products which will allow us to refocus investment towards new innovation initiatives.
We are advancing our Agile Management, DevOps and Security solutions while endeavoring to build a common technology stack across several of our product lines. We are making strides towards this shared component approach in order to make it easier, faster and more efficient for new solutions to be built.
We are also accelerating innovation using an incubator model, applying lean start-up best practices to grow new businesses. We are interested in areas of increasing importance to enterprises, such as big data, analytics, containerization, developer productivity, security and the Internet of Things. This model ensures we are making appropriate investments and building technology that customers value, using a small-batch, cost-efficient approach, utilizing university partnerships to support and advance development.
Our research and development activities also include a number of efforts to support our technical community in its pursuit of creating leading solutions for customers. We continue to use two CA initiatives, the Office of the CTO Research and CA University Relations, to strengthen our relationships with research communities by working with academia, professional associations, industry standards bodies, customers and partners to explore novel products and emerging technologies. We also engage with universities to conduct product-focused research to create solutions for emerging opportunities.
We have charged to operations  $560 million $603 million , and  $574 million in fiscal 2016 , 2015 and 2014 , respectively, for product development and enhancements. In fiscal 2014, we capitalized costs of $40 million for internally developed software. In fiscal 2016 and 2015, we did not have capitalized costs for internally developed software.
Our product offerings and go-to-market strategy continue to evolve to include solutions that may be delivered either on-premise or via SaaS or cloud platforms. We expect our product offerings to continue to become available to customers at more frequent intervals than our historical release cycles. Over the last few years, we have continued to leverage Agile development methodologies, which are characterized by a more dynamic development process with more frequent revisions to a product release’s features and functions as the software is being developed. In addition, we have implemented a holistic portfolio management process, which has improved transparency and efficiency across the portfolio through a quarterly cadence of business reviews.
Intellectual Property
Our products and technology are generally proprietary. We rely on U.S. and foreign intellectual property laws, including patent, copyright, trademark and trade secret laws, to protect our proprietary rights. However, the extent and duration of protection given to different types of intellectual property rights vary under different countries' legal systems. In some countries, full-scale intellectual property protection for our products and technology may be unavailable, and the laws of other jurisdictions may not protect our proprietary technology rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. We also maintain contractual restrictions in our agreements with customers, employees and others to protect our intellectual property rights. These restrictions generally bind our customers and employees to confidentiality regarding our intellectual property and limit our customers' use of our software and prohibit certain disclosures to third parties.
We regularly license software and technology from third parties, including some competitors, and incorporate them into our own software products. We include third-party technology in our products in accordance with contractual relationships that specify our rights.
We believe that our patent portfolio differentiates our products and services from those of our competitors, enhances our ability to access third-party technology and helps protect our investment in research and development. We continue to enhance our internal patent program to increase our ability to capture patents, strengthen their quality and increase the pace at which we are able to move our innovations through the patent process. At March 31, 2016, our patent portfolio included more than 1,200 issued patents and more than 950 pending applications in the United States and across the world. The patents generally expire at various times over the next 20 years. Although the durations and geographic intellectual property protection coverage for our patents may vary, we believe our patent portfolio adequately protects our interests. Although we have a number of patents and pending applications that may be of value to various aspects of our products and technology, we are not aware of any single patent that is essential to us or to any of our reportable segments.

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The source code for our products is protected both as trade secrets and as copyrighted works. Our customers do not generally have access to the source code for our products. Rather, on-premise customers typically access only the executable code for our products, and SaaS customers access only the functionality of our SaaS offerings. Under certain contingent circumstances, some of our customers are beneficiaries of a source code escrow arrangement that enables them to obtain a limited right to access our source code.
We continue to be engaged in efforts to more fully employ our intellectual property by strategically licensing and/or assigning selected assets within our portfolio. This effort is intended to better position us in the marketplace and allow us the flexibility to reinvest in improving our overall business.
Product Licensing and Maintenance
For traditional, on-premise licensing, we typically license to customers either perpetually or on a subscription basis for a specified term. Our customers also purchase maintenance and support services that provide technical support and any general product enhancements released during the maintenance period.
Under a perpetual license, the customer has the right to use the licensed program for an indefinite period of time, typically upon payment of a one-time license fee. If the customer wants to receive maintenance, the customer is required to pay an additional annual maintenance fee.
Under a subscription license, the customer has the right to usage and maintenance of the licensed products during the term of the agreement. Under our licensing terms, customers can license our software products under multi-year licenses, with most customers choosing terms of three to five years, although some customers seeking greater cost certainty may negotiate longer terms. Thereafter, the license generally renews for the same period of time on the same terms and conditions, but subject to the customer's payment of our then-applicable fees.
Within these license categories, our contracts provide customers with the right to use our products under a variety of models including, but not limited to:
A typical designated CPU (central processing unit) license, under which the customer may use the licensed product on a single, designated CPU.
A MIPS (millions of instructions per second)-based license, which allows the customer to use the licensed product on one or more CPUs, limited by the aggregate MIPS rating of the CPUs covered by the license.
A user-based license, under which the customer may use the licensed product by or for the agreed number of licensed users.
A designated server license, under which the customer may use a certain distributed product on a single, designated server. The licensed products must be licensed for use with a specific operating system.
Customers can obtain licenses to our products through individual discrete purchases to meet their immediate needs or through the adoption of enterprise license agreements. Enterprise license agreements are comprehensive licenses that cover multiple products and also provide for maintenance and support.
For our mainframe solutions, the majority of our licenses provide customers with the right to use one or more of our products up to a specific license capacity, generally measured in MIPS. For these products, customers may acquire additional capacity during the term of a license by paying us an additional license fee. For our enterprise solutions, our licenses may provide customers with the right to use one or more of our products limited to a number of servers, users or copies, among other things. Customers may license these products for additional servers, users or copies, etc., during the term of a license by paying us an additional license fee.
SaaS is another delivery model we offer for certain products when a customer prefers to use our technology off-premises with little or no infrastructure required. Our SaaS offerings are typically licensed for a designated term using a subscription fee.
Competition
Our industry is extremely competitive and characterized by: rapid technological change; the emergence of new companies and products; evolving industry standards, computing platforms, go-to-market and business models; and continually changing customer needs. We compete with many established companies broadly across our multiple product lines, the majority of which have substantially greater financial, marketing and technological resources than we do. We also compete with numerous smaller companies that provide products in a single area of our portfolio. Many of these firms are more agile due to their size and limited scope, and are able to evolve more rapidly to meet changes in the technology landscape. They are generally delivering their solutions in cloud-based and/or lightweight try-and-buy models.
Our competitors in various parts of our businesses include Apigee Corporation, AppDynamics, Inc., Atlassian Corporation, Plc, BMC Software Inc., Compuware Corporation, CyberArk Software, Ltd., Dell Inc., Hewlett-Packard Enterprise Company, International Business Machines Corporation, Microsoft Corporation, Oracle Corporation, ServiceNow, Inc., SolarWinds, Inc., Splunk, Inc. and VMware, Inc.

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We believe our experience managing mission-critical capabilities for major global corporations, our platform and hardware independence, and our deep customer relationships set us apart from other established competitors in the market. Further, we believe we are differentiated from emerging point-product providers by our global reach, breadth and synergy of offerings, and deep industry experience.
Employees
We had approximately 11,000 and 11,600 employees at March 31, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Financial Information About Geographic Areas
Refer to Note 17 “Segment and Geographic Information,” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for financial data pertaining to our segment and geographic operations.
Corporate Information
The Company was incorporated in Delaware in 1974, began operations in 1976 and completed an initial public offering of common stock in December 1981. Our common stock is traded on The NASDAQ Global Select Market tier of The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC under the symbol “CA.”
Our corporate website address is www.ca.com. All filings we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), including our Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, our Current Reports on Form 8-K, our proxy statements and any amendments thereto filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, are available for free in the Investor Relations section of our website (www.ca.com/invest) as soon as reasonably practicable after they are filed with or furnished to the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to be read or copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Information about the operation of the Public Reference Room can be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. Our filings can also be obtained for free on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. The reference to our website address does not constitute inclusion or incorporation by reference of the information contained on our website in this Form 10-K or other filings with the SEC, and the information contained on our website is not part of this document.
The Investor Relations section of our website (www.ca.com/invest) also contains information about our initiatives in corporate governance, including: our corporate governance principles; information about our Board of Directors (including specific procedures for communicating with them); information concerning our Board Committees, including the charters of the Audit Committee, the Compensation and Human Resources Committee, the Corporate Governance Committee and the Compliance and Risk Committee; and our Code of Conduct (which qualifies as a “code of ethics” under applicable SEC regulations and is applicable to all of our employees, including our Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer and Principal Accounting Officer, and our directors are expected to act on behalf of CA Technologies consistently with the underlying ethical principles of the Code). These documents can also be obtained in print by writing to our Corporate Secretary, CA, Inc., 520 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10022.

Item 1A. Risk Factors.
Current and potential stockholders should consider carefully the risk factors described below. Any of these factors, many of which are beyond our control, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results, cash flow and stock price.
Failure to achieve success in our business strategy could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
As more fully described in Part I, Item 1 “Business,” of this Form 10-K, our business strategy is designed to build on our portfolio of software and services to meet current and next-generation market opportunities. The success of this strategy could be affected by many of the risk factors discussed in this Form 10-K and also by our ability to:
Ensure that any new offerings address the needs of a rapidly changing market while not adversely affecting the demand for our traditional products or our profitability to an extent greater than anticipated;
Enable our sales force to accelerate growth of sales to new customers and expand sales with existing customers, including sales outside of our renewal cycle and to a broadening set of purchasers outside of traditional information technology operations. This growth needs to be at levels sufficient to offset any decline in revenue and/or sales in our Mainframe Solutions segment and in certain mature product lines in our Enterprise Solutions segment:
in our Platinum customer accounts where we already have strong relationships;
in our Named customer accounts where a competitor already has an established relationship; and
in our Growth/Partners customer accounts where we currently do not have a strong presence and where we may have a dependence on unfamiliar distribution routes and offerings of a type not previously provided by us;

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Effectively manage the strategic shift in our business model to develop more easily installed software, provide additional SaaS offerings and refocus our professional services and education engagements on those engagements that are connected to new product sales, without affecting our financial performance to an extent greater than anticipated; and
Effectively manage our pricing and other go-to-market strategies, as well as improve the CA Technologies brand, technology and innovation awareness in the marketplace.
Failure to achieve success with this strategy could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
Failure to innovate or adapt to technological changes and introduce new software products and services in a timely manner could materially adversely affect our business.
If we fail to keep pace with, or in certain cases lead, technological change in our industry, that failure could materially adversely affect our business. We operate in a highly competitive industry characterized by rapid technological change, evolving industry standards, and changes in customer requirements and delivery methods. During the past several years, many new technological advancements and competing products entered the marketplace. The enterprise solutions markets in which we operate (including non-mainframe platforms from physical to virtual and cloud) are far more crowded and competitive than our traditional mainframe systems management markets.
Our ability to compete effectively and our growth prospects for all of our products, including those associated with our business strategy, depend upon many factors, including the success of our existing enterprise solutions, the timely introduction and success of future software products and services, including those that we acquire or develop, and related delivery methods, our ability to provide, and success in providing, timely and adequate customer support and the ability of our products to perform well with existing and future leading databases and other platforms supported by our products that address customer needs and are accepted by the market. We have experienced long development cycles and product delays in the past, particularly with some of our enterprise solutions, and even under the Agile development methodology, we may experience delays in the future. In addition, we have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, significant research and development costs as we introduce new products and integrate products into solution sets. If there are delays in new product introduction or solution set integration, or if there is less-than-anticipated market acceptance of these new products or solution sets, we will have invested substantial resources without realizing adequate revenues in return, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
We are subject to intense competition in product and service offerings and pricing, and we expect to face increased competition in the future, which could either diminish demand for or inhibit growth of our products and, therefore, reduce our sales, revenue and market presence.
The markets for our products are intensely competitive, and we expect product and service offerings and pricing competition to increase. Some of our competitors have longer operating histories, greater name recognition, a larger installed base of customers in any particular market niche, larger technical staffs, established relationships with hardware vendors, or greater financial, technical and marketing resources. Furthermore, our business strategy is predicated upon our ability to develop and acquire products and services that address customer needs and are accepted by the market better than those of our competitors.
We also face competition from numerous smaller companies that specialize in specific aspects of the highly fragmented software industry, and from shareware or open source authors that may develop competing products. In addition, new companies enter the market on a frequent and regular basis, offering products that compete with those offered by us. Moreover, certain customers historically have developed their own products that compete with those offered by us. The competition may affect our ability to attract and retain the technical skills needed to provide services to our customers, forcing us to become more reliant on delivery of services through third parties. This, in turn, could increase operating costs and decrease our revenue, profitability and cash flow. Additionally, competition from any of these sources could result in price reductions or displacement of our products, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
Our competitors include large vendors of hardware and operating system software and service providers. The widespread inclusion of products that perform the same or similar functions as our products bundled within computer hardware or other companies’ software products, or services similar to those provided by us, could reduce the perceived need for our products and services, or render our products obsolete and unmarketable. Furthermore, even if these incorporated products are inferior or more limited than our products, customers may elect to accept the incorporated products rather than purchasing our products. In addition, the software industry is currently undergoing consolidation as software companies seek to offer more extensive suites and broader arrays of software products and services, as well as integrated software and hardware solutions. This consolidation may adversely affect our competitive position, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow. Refer to Part I, Item 1, “Business - Competition,” of this Form 10-K for additional information.

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If our products do not remain compatible with ever-changing operating environments, platforms, or third party products, we could lose customers and the demand for our products and services could decrease, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
The largest suppliers of systems and computing software are, in most cases, the manufacturers of the computer hardware systems used by most of our customers, particularly in the mainframe space. Historically, these companies have from time to time modified or introduced new operating systems, systems software and computer hardware. In the future, new products from these companies could require substantial modification of our products to maintain compatibility with these companies’ hardware or software. Although we have to date been able to adapt our products and our business to changes introduced by hardware manufacturers and system software developers, there can be no assurance that we will be able to do so in the future.
Further, our solutions interact with a variety of software and hardware developed by third parties and we may lose access to third-party code and specifications for the development of code, which could materially adversely affect our ability to develop software compatible with third-party software products in the future. Some software providers and hardware manufacturers, including some of the largest vendors, have a policy of restricting the use or availability of their code or technical documentation for some of their operating systems, applications, or hardware. To date, this policy has not had a material effect on us. Some companies, however, may adopt more restrictive policies in the future or impose unfavorable terms and conditions for such access. These restrictions may, in the future, result in higher research and development costs for us in connection with the enhancement and modification of our existing products and the development of new products. Any additional restrictions could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
In addition, the emergence of cloud computing means that many of our enterprise solutions customers are themselves undergoing a radical shift in the way they deliver IT services to their businesses. The shift towards delivering infrastructure and SaaS from the cloud may negatively affect our ability to sell IT management solutions to our traditional enterprise solutions customers. While we believe we adequately understand this risk and are taking steps in our product and business strategy to plan for it, failure to adapt our products, solutions, delivery models and sales approaches to effectively plan for cloud computing may adversely affect our business. If we are not successful in anticipating the rate of market change towards the cloud computing paradigm and evolving with it by delivering solutions for IT management in the cloud computing environment, customers may forgo the use of our products in favor of those with comparable functionality delivered via the cloud, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
Given the global nature of our business, economic factors or political events beyond our control and other business and legal risks associated with non-U.S. operations can affect our business in unpredictable ways.
International revenue has historically represented a significant percentage of our total worldwide revenue. Success in selling and developing our products outside the United States will depend on a variety of factors in various non-U.S. locations, including:
Developing and executing an effective go-to-market strategy in various locations;
Foreign exchange rates;
Local economic conditions;
Restrictive local laws regarding the transfer of funds from, or the conversion of currencies in, certain countries;
Political stability and acts of terrorism;
Workforce reorganizations in various locations, including global reorganizations of sales, research and development, technical services, finance, human resources and facilities functions;
Effectively staffing key managerial and technical positions;
Successfully localizing software products for a significant number of international markets;
Restrictive employment regulation;
Trade restrictions such as tariffs, duties, taxes or other controls;
International intellectual property laws, which may be more restrictive or may offer lower levels of protection than U.S. law; and
Compliance by us and our partners (including unaffiliated third-party partners) with differing, changing and potentially inconsistent local laws, regulations and interpretations in multiple international jurisdictions, as well as compliance with U.S. laws and regulations where applicable in these international locations, such as anti-corruption, competition, anti-money laundering, export control and data privacy laws and regulations, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, the UK Bribery Act of 2010, the potential impact of recent EU activity regarding data transfer restrictions as well as the impending General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and Network and Information Security (NIS) Directive in the EU, trade controls and sanctions administered by the U.S. Office of Foreign Assets Control and similar laws and regulations in other jurisdictions.

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In addition to affecting our success, negative effects of any of these factors may increase the cost of doing business internationally. The cost of our international operations may be increased further with respect to products and lines of business acquired in connection with inorganic growth, as the efforts undertaken by the target companies with respect to these factors may be less robust or effective than the efforts we have undertaken with respect to these factors. Any such rise in costs could individually or in the aggregate make our products and services less attractive to our customers, delay the introduction of new products in one or more regions or cause us to change or limit our business practices. We have implemented policies, procedures and controls designed to achieve compliance with applicable laws and regulations, but our corporate policies, process and controls may not prevent or detect all potential breaches of law or other governance practices. We occasionally identify or are apprised of information or allegations that certain employees, affiliates, agents or associated persons may have violated these laws. Any violation of these laws could lead to substantial civil and criminal fines and penalties, litigation, loss of operating licenses or permits and other collateral consequences. An unfavorable development regarding any of the foregoing factors could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
Failure to expand our partner programs and sales of our solutions by our partners may result in lost sales opportunities, increases in expenses and a weakening of our market position.
In addition to our direct sales efforts, we sell our products and solutions through various partner channels, which include resellers, global service providers, global system integrators, managed service providers and global technology partners. Through our various global partner programs, we provide incentives, training, enablement and marketing investments so that our partners have the capability and expertise to sell and deliver these solutions to their customers. We also leverage global systems integrators and global technology partners to assist with and influence the sales of solutions to our Platinum and Named customers and we plan on utilizing resellers to better penetrate the Growth/Partners customer market. The failure to expand these partner programs and investments, or the failure of our partners to maintain or increase their sales of our products, could adversely affect our overall business success, including our market position. This could result in lost incremental sales opportunities that partners provide and, as a result, materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
Our business may suffer if we are not able to retain and attract qualified professionals, including key managerial, technical, marketing and sales professionals.
We operate in a business where there is intense competition for experienced personnel in all of our global markets. We depend on our ability to identify, recruit, hire, train, develop and retain qualified and effective professionals and to attract and retain talent needed to execute our business strategy. We also depend on our ability to perform these tasks with respect to professionals from acquired companies, which ability may be negatively impacted by our efforts to integrate and rationalize the products and lines of business we have acquired. Our ability to do so depends on numerous factors, including factors that we cannot control, such as competition and conditions in the local employment markets in which we operate. Effective succession planning is also important for our long-term success. Failure to ensure effective transfers of knowledge and smooth transitions involving key employees could hinder our strategic planning and execution. Our success depends in a large part on the continued contribution of our senior management and other key employees. A loss of a significant number of skilled managerial, technical, marketing or other professionals could have a negative effect on the quality of our products. A loss of a significant number of experienced and effective sales professionals could result in fewer sales of our products. Our failure to retain qualified employees in these categories could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
General economic conditions and credit constraints, or unfavorable economic conditions in a particular region, business or industry sector, may lead our customers to delay or forgo technology investments and could have other impacts, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
Our products are designed to improve the productivity and efficiency of our customers’ information processing resources. However, a general slowdown in the global economy, or in a particular region (such as Europe), or disruption in a business or industry sector (such as the financial services sector), or tightening of credit markets, could cause customers to: have difficulty accessing credit sources; delay contractual payments; or delay or forgo decisions to (i) license new products (particularly with respect to discretionary spending for software), (ii) upgrade their existing environments or (iii) purchase services. Any such impacts could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
A general slowdown in the global economy may also materially affect the global banking system, including individual institutions as well as a particular business or industry sector, which could cause consolidations or failures in such a sector. Approximately one third of our revenue is derived from arrangements with financial institutions ( i.e., banking, brokerage and insurance companies). In addition, we derive material portions of our revenue from other industries such as telecommunications and health care that rely on transaction processing. The majority of these arrangements are for the renewal of mainframe solutions capacity and maintenance associated with transactions processed by our customers. While we cannot predict what impact there may be on our business from changes to the financial industry, telecommunications or health care sectors, or the impact on our business from the economy in general, to date the impact has not been material to our balance sheet, results of operations or cash flow.

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Any of these events could affect the manner in which we are able to conduct business, including within a particular industry sector or market and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
We may encounter difficulties in successfully integrating companies and products that we have acquired or may acquire into our existing business, which could materially adversely affect our infrastructure, market presence, business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
In the past we have acquired, and in the future we expect to acquire, complementary companies, products, services and technologies through a number of different vehicles, including through mergers, asset acquisitions, joint ventures, partnerships, strategic alliances and equity investments. Additionally, we expect to acquire technology and software that are consistent with our business strategy. The risks we may encounter include:
We may find that the acquired company or assets do not improve our financial and strategic position as planned;
We may have difficulty integrating the operations, facilities, personnel and commission plans of the acquired business;
We may have difficulty forecasting or reporting results subsequent to acquisitions;
We may have difficulty retaining the skills needed to further market, sell or provide services on the acquired products in a manner that will be accepted by the market;
We may have difficulty incorporating the acquired technologies or products into our existing product lines;
We may have product liability, customer liability or intellectual property liability associated with the sale of the acquired company’s products;
Our ongoing business may be disrupted by transition or integration issues and our management’s attention may be diverted from other business initiatives;
We may be unable to obtain timely approvals from governmental authorities under applicable competition and antitrust laws;
We may have difficulty maintaining uniform standards, controls, procedures and policies;
Our relationships with current and new employees, customers and distributors could be impaired;
An acquisition may result in increased litigation risk, including litigation from terminated employees or third parties;
Our due diligence process may fail to identify significant issues with the acquired company’s product quality, financial disclosures, accounting practices, internal control deficiencies including material weaknesses, product architecture, legal and tax contingencies, compliance with differing, changing and potentially inconsistent local laws, regulations and interpretations in multiple international jurisdictions, as well as compliance with U.S. laws and regulations where applicable in these international locations, and other matters; and
We may not be able to realize the benefits of recognized goodwill and intangible assets and this may result in the potential impairment of these assets.
These risks can be heightened during periods when we seek to integrate multiple acquisitions at the same time or in a relatively short period of time. These factors could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flow, particularly in the case of a large acquisition or number of acquisitions. To the extent we issue shares of stock or other rights to purchase stock, including options, to pay for acquisitions or to retain employees, existing stockholders’ interests may be diluted and income per share may decrease.
Our sales to government clients subject us to risks, including lack of fiscal funding approval, renegotiation or termination at the discretion of the government, as well as audits and investigations, which could result in litigation, penalties and sanctions including early termination, suspension and debarment.
Approximately 7% of our total revenue backlog at March 31, 2016 is associated with multi-year contracts signed with the U.S. federal government and other U.S. state and local government agencies. These contracts are generally subject to annual fiscal funding approval and may be renegotiated or terminated at the discretion of the government. Termination, renegotiation or the lack of funding approval for a contract could adversely affect our sales, revenue and reputation. Additionally, our government contracts are generally subject to certain requirements, some of which are generally not present in commercial contracts and/or may be complex, as well as to audits and investigations. Failure to meet contractual requirements could result in various civil and criminal actions and penalties, and administrative sanctions, including termination of contracts, refund of a portion of fees received, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines and suspensions or debarment from doing business with the government and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow. Refer to Note 11, “Commitments and Contingencies,” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information about litigation and related matters in this area.

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Our data center, network, as well as our software products, and the IT environments of our vendors and customers are subject to hacking or other cybersecurity threats, which could result in a loss or misuse of proprietary, personally identifiable and confidential information and/or harm to our customer relationships and the market perception of the effectiveness of our products.
Given that some of our products are intended to manage and secure IT infrastructures and environments, we expect to be an ongoing target of attacks specifically designed to impede the performance of our products. Use of open source code or other third-party software in our products and infrastructure could also bring increased cybersecurity risks. This risk can be heightened with acquired products, which may not have gone through the same testing and quality control measures as our organically developed products. Experienced computer programmers or hackers may attempt to penetrate our network security or the security of our data centers and IT environments. Others, including employees or vendors, may also intentionally or unintentionally provide unauthorized access to our IT environments or to our customers’ IT environments. These hackers or others may misappropriate proprietary, personally identifiable and confidential information of the Company, our customers, our employees or our business partners or other individuals or cause interruptions of our or our customers’ IT operations, services and businesses. This may cause contractual disputes and may negatively affect the market perception of the effectiveness of our products and our reputation even if the unauthorized access is not attributable to our products or personnel. Our SaaS business includes the hosting of customer data, including large amounts of sensitive information, and uses third-party data centers that may also be subject to hacking incidents. If our SaaS business increases substantially, whether due to growth of our existing SaaS business or if we acquire a SaaS business, such as in the second quarter of fiscal 2016, our exposure to hacking incidents could increase due to the nature of the increase in the volume of SaaS business activity and the potential increase in the number of SaaS technology platforms we maintain. Although we continually seek to improve our countermeasures to prevent and detect such incidents, we may be unable to anticipate these problems and such incidents could require significant expenditures of our capital and diversion of our resources from development activities. Additionally, these efforts by hackers or others could cause interruptions, delays or cessation of our product licensing, or modification of our software, which could cause us to lose existing or potential customers. If these efforts are successful and a third party obtains unauthorized access to our or our customers’ IT environments, our business operations, and those of our customers, could be adversely affected, losses or theft of data could occur, our reputation and future sales could be harmed, governmental regulatory action or private or governmental litigation could be commenced against us and our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow could be materially adversely affected.
If we do not adequately manage, evolve and protect our information systems, infrastructure and processes, our ability to manage and grow our business may be harmed.
We rely on our information systems, including our enterprise resource planning software, and information systems of third parties for managing the financial information of our business. Any disruption in our information systems and those of the third parties upon whom we rely could have a significant impact on our business. In addition, we continuously work to enhance our information systems and infrastructure and integrate those of acquired companies. The implementation of these types of enhancements and the integration with information systems of acquired companies is frequently disruptive to the underlying business, which may especially be the case for us due to the size and complexity of our business. Additionally, delays in adapting our information systems to address new business models, such as SaaS, could limit the success or result in the failure of those initiatives and impair the effectiveness of our internal controls.
Although we have implemented a disaster recovery program, our system redundancy may be ineffective or inadequate and our disaster recovery planning may not be sufficient for all eventualities, including scenarios associated with acquired companies. Failure to properly or adequately address these issues, as well as to manage and protect our infrastructure, could result in the diversion of management’s attention and resources, adversely affect our ability to manage our business, including our SaaS business, file our quarterly or annual reports with the SEC on a timely and accurate basis, and to meet our obligations to our customers, and materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flow.
Failure to renew license agreement transactions on a satisfactory basis could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
Many of our customers have multi-year enterprise license agreements, some of which may involve substantial aggregate fee amounts. These customers have no contractual obligation to purchase additional solutions and renewal rates may decline or fluctuate as a result of a number of factors, including the level of customer satisfaction with our solutions or customer support, customer budgets and the pricing of our solutions as compared with the solutions offered by our competitors, any of which may cause our revenue to grow more slowly than expected, if at all. The failure to renew those transactions in the future, or to replace those enterprise license agreements with renewal transactions of similar scope, on terms that are commercially attractive to us, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.

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Fluctuations in foreign exchange rates could result in losses.
Our consolidated financial results are reported in U.S. dollars. Most of the revenue and expenses of our foreign subsidiaries are denominated in local currencies. Given that cash is typically received over an extended period of time for many of our license agreements and given that a substantial portion of our revenue is generated outside of the United States, fluctuations in foreign exchange rates against the U.S. dollar could result in substantial changes in reported revenues and operating results due to the foreign exchange impact upon translation of these transactions into U.S. dollars.
In the normal course of business, we employ various hedging strategies to partially mitigate these risks, including the use of derivative instruments. These strategies may not be effective in protecting us against the effects of fluctuations from movements in foreign exchange rates. Fluctuations of the foreign exchange rates could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
Discovery of errors or omissions in our software products could materially adversely affect our revenue and earnings and subject us to costly and time consuming product liability claims.
The software products we offer are inherently complex. Despite testing and quality control, we cannot be certain that errors or omissions will not be found in current versions, new versions, documentation or enhancements of our software products after commencement of commercial shipments. This risk can be heightened with acquired products which may not have gone through the same testing and quality control measures as our organically developed products (our organically developed products and acquired products collectively, our Products). If new or existing customers have difficulty deploying our Products or require significant amounts of customer support, our operating margins could be adversely affected. We could also face possible claims and higher development costs if our Products contain errors that we have not detected or if our Products otherwise fail to meet our customers’ expectations. Significant technical challenges also arise with our Products because our customers license and deploy our Products across a variety of computer platforms and integrate them with a number of third party software applications and databases. These combinations increase our risk further because, in the event of a system-wide failure, it may be difficult to determine which product is at fault. As a result, we may be harmed by the failure of another supplier’s products. As a result of the foregoing, we could experience:
Loss of or delay in revenue and loss of market share;
Loss of customers, including the inability to obtain repeat business with existing key customers;
Damage to our reputation;
Failure to achieve market acceptance;
Diversion of development resources;
Remediation efforts that may be required;
Increased service and warranty costs;
Legal actions by customers or government authorities against us that, whether or not successful, could be costly, distracting and time-consuming;
Increased insurance costs; and
Failure to successfully complete service or customer support engagements for product installations, implementations and integrations.
Consequently, the discovery of errors in our Products after delivery could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
Failure to protect our intellectual property rights and source code would weaken our competitive position.
Our success is highly dependent upon our proprietary technology, including our software and our source code for that software, both organically developed and acquired. Failure to protect such technology could lead to the loss of valuable assets and our competitive advantage. We protect our proprietary information through the use of patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secret laws, confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions. Notwithstanding our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, policing unauthorized use or copying of our proprietary information is difficult. Unauthorized use or copying occurs from time to time and litigation to enforce intellectual property rights could result in significant costs and diversion of resources. Moreover, the laws of some foreign jurisdictions do not afford the same degree of protection to our proprietary rights as do the laws of the United States. For example, for some of our products, we rely on “shrink-wrap” or “click-on” licenses, which may be unenforceable in whole or in part in some jurisdictions in which we operate. In addition, patents we have obtained may be circumvented, challenged, invalidated or designed around by other companies. Furthermore, confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions can be difficult to enforce and, even if successfully enforced, may not have effective remedies available to ameliorate unauthorized disclosure of our intellectual property. If we do not adequately protect our intellectual property for these or other reasons, our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow could be materially adversely affected. Refer to Part I, Item 1, “Business - Intellectual Property,” of this Form 10-K for additional information.

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Certain software that we use in our products is licensed from third parties and, for that reason, may not be available to us in the future, which has the potential to delay product development and production or cause us to incur additional expense, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
Some of our solutions contain software licensed from third parties. Some of these licenses may not be available to us in the future on terms that are acceptable to us or allow our products to remain competitive. The loss of these licenses or the inability to maintain any of them on commercially acceptable terms could delay development of future products or the enhancement of existing products. We may also choose to pay a premium price for such a license in certain circumstances where the benefit of continuity of the licensed product would outweigh the premium cost of the license. The unavailability of these licenses or the necessity of agreeing to commercially unreasonable terms for such licenses could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
Certain software we use is from open source code sources, which, under certain circumstances, may lead to unintended consequences and, therefore, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
Some of our products, both organically developed and acquired, contain software from open source code sources. The use of such open source code may subject us to certain conditions, including the obligation to offer our products that use open source code for no cost or to make the proprietary source code of those products publicly available. Further, although some open source vendors provide warranty and support agreements in conjunction with the use of their open source software, it is common for many open source software authors to make their open source software available “as-is” with no warranty, indemnity or support. We monitor our use of such open source code to avoid subjecting our products to conditions we do not intend. However, the use of such open source code may ultimately subject some of our products to unintended conditions, which could require us to take remedial action that may divert resources away from our development efforts and, therefore, could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
Third parties could claim that our products infringe or contribute to the infringement of their intellectual property rights or that we owe royalty payments to them, which could result in significant litigation expense or settlement with unfavorable terms, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
From time to time, third parties have claimed and may claim that our products, both organically developed and acquired, infringe various forms of their intellectual property or that we owe royalty payments to them. Investigation of these claims can be expensive and could affect development, marketing or shipment of our products. As the number of software patents issued increases, it is likely that additional claims will be asserted. Defending against such claims is time consuming and could result in significant litigation expense, adverse judgments or settlement on unfavorable terms, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
The number, terms and duration of our license agreements, as well as the timing of orders from our customers and channel partners, may cause fluctuations in some of our key financial metrics, which may affect our quarterly financial results.
Historically, a substantial portion of our license agreements are executed in the last month of a quarter and the number of contracts executed during a given quarter can vary substantially. In addition, it is characteristic of our industry when dealing with enterprise customers to experience long sales cycles, which for us is driven in part by the varying terms and conditions of our software contracts. These factors can make it difficult for us to predict sales and cash flow on a quarterly basis. Any failure or delay in executing new or renewed license agreements in a given quarter could cause declines in some of our key financial metrics (e.g., revenue or cash flow), and, accordingly, increases the risk of unanticipated variations in our quarterly results, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
We may encounter events or circumstances that would require us to record an impairment charge relating to our goodwill or capitalized software and other intangible assets balances.
Under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles, we are required to evaluate our capitalized software and other intangible assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable. We test goodwill for impairment at least annually, and more frequently if impairment indicators are present. In future periods, we may be subject to factors that may constitute a change in circumstances, indicating that the carrying value of our goodwill exceeds fair value or our capitalized software and other intangible assets may not be recoverable. These changes may consist of, but are not limited to, declines in our stock price and market capitalization, reduced future cash flow estimates, and slower growth rates in our industry. Any of these factors, or others, could require us to record a significant non-cash impairment charge in our financial statements during a period. Acquisitions can result in additional goodwill or capitalized software and other intangible assets balances subject to impairment risk. If we determine that a significant impairment of our goodwill or our capitalized software and other intangible assets has occurred in any of our operating segments, this could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.

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Potential tax liabilities may materially adversely affect our results.
We are subject to income taxes in the United States and in numerous foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. In the ordinary course of our business, we engage in many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain.
We are regularly under audit by tax authorities. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the final determination of tax audits and any related litigation could be materially different from that which is reflected in our income tax provisions and accruals. Additional tax assessments resulting from audit, litigation or changes in tax laws may result in increased tax provisions or payments or possibly criminal claims, penalties or fines which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow in the period or periods in which that determination is made. Refer to Note 15, “Income Taxes,” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information about our tax matters.
Changes in market conditions or our credit ratings could increase our interest costs and adversely affect the cost of refinancing our debt and our ability to refinance our debt, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
At March 31, 2016 and 2015, we had $1,953 million and $1,257 million , respectively, of debt outstanding, consisting mostly of unsecured senior note obligations. Refer to Note 8, “Debt,” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for the payment schedule of our long-term debt obligations. Our senior unsecured notes are rated by Moody’s Investors Service, Fitch Ratings, and Standard and Poor’s. These agencies or any other credit rating agency could downgrade or take other negative action with respect to our credit ratings in the future. If our credit ratings were downgraded or other negative action is taken, or market conditions change, we could be required to, among other things, pay additional interest on outstanding borrowings under our principal revolving credit agreement and term loan agreement. Any downgrades or changes in market conditions could affect our ability to obtain additional financing in the future and may affect the terms of any such financing.
We expect that existing cash, cash equivalents, marketable securities, cash provided from operations and our bank credit facilities will be sufficient to meet ongoing cash requirements. However, our failure to generate sufficient cash as our debt becomes due, renew credit lines prior to their expiration or refinance our existing debt on satisfactory terms could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
Changes in generally accepted accounting principles may materially adversely affect our reported results of operation or financial condition.
From time to time, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issues new accounting principles. Refer to Note 1, “Significant Accounting Policies,” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information about new accounting pronouncements, including Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09 regarding revenue recognition. Changes to existing rules, or changes to the interpretations of existing rules, could lead to changes in our business practices, accounting policies and systems. Such changes could materially adversely affect our reported financial results.
Failure by us to effectively execute on our announced workforce reductions, workforce rebalancing and facilities consolidations could result in total costs that are greater than expected or revenues that are less than anticipated.
In recent years, we have announced workforce reductions, workforce rebalancing, global facilities consolidations and other cost reduction initiatives to reallocate resources of our business as part of our strategy. We may have further workforce reductions, workforce rebalancing, global facilities consolidations and other cost reduction initiatives in the future. Risks associated with these actions and other workforce management issues include delays in implementation, changes in plans that increase or decrease the number of employees affected, adverse effects on employee morale and the failure to meet operational targets due to the loss of employees, any of which may impair our ability to achieve anticipated cost reductions or may otherwise harm our business, which could materially adversely affect our financial condition, operating results and cash flow.
We have outsourced various functions to third parties. These arrangements may not be successful or fully secure, which could result in increased costs or an increased chance of a cybersecurity breach, which could adversely affect customer service levels.
We have outsourced various functions to third parties, including certain product development and administrative functions and hosting for our SaaS business, and we may outsource additional functions to third parties in the future. These outsourced functions may involve confidential and/or personally identifiable information. We rely on these third parties to provide outsourced services on a timely and effective basis and to adequately address their own cybersecurity threats. Although we periodically monitor the performance of these third parties and maintain contingency plans in case the third parties are unable to perform as agreed, we do not ultimately control the performance of these third parties. The failure of third-party outsourcing partners or vendors to perform as expected could result in significant disruptions and costs to our operations or our customers’ operations, including the potential loss of personally identifiable information of our customers, employees and business partners and could subject us to legal action by government authorities or private parties, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, operating results and cash flow.


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Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.

Item 2. Properties.
Our principal real estate properties are located in areas necessary to meet our operating requirements. All of the properties are considered to be both suitable and adequate to meet our current and anticipated operating requirements.
At March 31, 2016 , we leased 44 facilities throughout the United States and 52 facilities outside the United States. Our lease obligations expire on various dates with the longest commitment extending to fiscal 2027. We believe that substantially all of our leases will be renewable at market terms at our option as they become due or that suitable alternatives will be available at market terms.
We own four facilities globally, consisting of one facility in Germany totaling approximately 100,000 square feet, one facility comprised of two buildings in Italy totaling approximately 140,000 square feet, one facility comprised of two buildings in India totaling approximately 455,000 square feet and one facility in the United Kingdom totaling approximately 215,000 square feet.
We utilize our leased and owned facilities for sales, technical support, research and development and administrative functions.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings.
Refer to Note 11, “Commitments and Contingencies,” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for information regarding certain legal proceedings, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.
*        *        *

Executive Officers of the Registrant.
The name, age, present position and business experience for at least the past five years of each of our executive officers at May 12, 2016 are listed below:
Michael P. Gregoire,  50, has been Chief Executive Officer and a director of the Company since January 2013. Previously, he served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Taleo Corporation (Taleo), a provider of on-demand talent management software solutions, from March 2005 until Taleo’s acquisition by Oracle Corporation in April 2012. Mr. Gregoire also served as a director of Taleo from April 2005 until April 2012 and served as Taleo’s Chairman of the Board from May 2008 until April 2012. Mr. Gregoire served as Executive Vice President, Global Services and held various other senior management positions at PeopleSoft, Inc., an enterprise software company, from May 2000 to January 2005. Mr. Gregoire served as Managing Director for global financial markets at Electronic Data Systems, Inc., a global technology services company, from 1996 to April 2000, and in various other roles from 1988 to 1996.
Richard J. Beckert,  54, has been Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of the Company since May 2011. He served as the Company’s Corporate Controller from June 2008 to May 2011 and as Senior Vice President, Strategic Pricing and Offerings from September 2006, when he joined the Company, until June 2008.
Michael C. Bisignano,   45, has been Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary since May 2015. He served as the Company’s Executive Vice President and General Counsel from February 2015 to May 2015. He is responsible for all of the Company’s legal and compliance functions worldwide. Previously, Mr. Bisignano served as Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of Blackboard, Inc., a provider of education technology solutions, from February 2012 to January 2015, Vice President, Deputy General Counsel and Assistant Corporate Secretary of Blackboard, Inc. from August 2010 to February 2012 and Vice President, General Counsel and Corporate Secretary of Online Resources Corporation, a software and SaaS technology provider, from June 2006 to August 2010.

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Adam Elster,  48, has been the Company’s Executive Vice President and Group Executive, Worldwide Sales and Services since January 2014. He is responsible for all sales for the Company and for building and maintaining customer and partner relationships across all sectors and geographies. Since joining the Company in 1999, Mr. Elster has held a number of senior management positions, including Executive Vice President and Group Executive, Mainframe and Customer Success Group from February 2012 to January 2014, Executive Vice President, Global Business Organization and Business Transformation from August 2011 to February 2012, General Manager, CA Services, Support and Education from June 2011 to August 2011, Corporate Senior Vice President and General Manager, CA Services from November 2009 to June 2011, and Senior Vice President, Area Sales Manager for the Eastern United States, from July 2007 to November 2009.
Lauren P. Flaherty,  58, has been the Company’s Executive Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer since August 2013. Previously, she was Executive Vice President and Chief Marketing Officer at Juniper Networks, Inc., which develops and markets networking products, from February 2009 to July 2013 and Chief Marketing Officer at Nortel Networks Corporation, a telecommunications and data networking equipment manufacturer, from May 2006 to December 2008.
Jacob Lamm,  51, has been the Company’s Executive Vice President, Strategy and Corporate Development since February 2009. He is responsible for directing the Company’s overall business strategy, as well as the Company’s strategy for acquisitions. Mr. Lamm has held various management positions since joining the Company in 1998, including serving as Executive Vice President, Governance Group from January 2008 to February 2009 and as Executive Vice President and General Manager, Business Service Optimization Business Unit from March 2007 to January 2008.
Paul L. Pronsati,  58, has been the Company’s Executive Vice President, Global Operations and Information Technology since November 2014. He is responsible for managing the Company’s business operations worldwide and for overseeing the Company’s information technology. Mr. Pronsati served as the Company’s Senior Vice President, Global Operations and Information Technology from February 2013, when he joined the Company, until November 2014. Previously, he was Senior Vice President, Operations at Taleo from April 2005 to May 2012.
Ayman Sayed, 53, joined the Company as Executive Vice President and Chief Product Officer in August 2015. He is responsible for the strategy and development of CA’s full portfolio of Enterprise products and solutions. Mr. Sayed served as Senior Vice President of Engineering, Mobility Virtualization Group at Cisco Systems, Inc., which designs and sells broad lines of products, provides services and delivers integrated solutions to develop and connect networks around the world, from August 2014 to August 2015, Senior Vice President of Engineering, Network Operating System Group from February 2012 to August 2014 and Vice President of Engineering, Enterprise Switching Group from June 2010 to February 2012.



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Part II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Our common stock is traded on The NASDAQ Global Select Market tier of The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (NASDAQ) under the symbol “CA.” The following table sets forth, for the fiscal quarters indicated, the quarterly high and low closing sales prices on NASDAQ:
 
Fiscal 2016
 
Fiscal 2015
 
High
 
Low
 
High
 
Low
Fourth Quarter
$
31.11

 
$
25.83

 
$
33.11

 
$
29.89

Third Quarter
$
29.35

 
$
26.53

 
$
31.37

 
$
25.52

Second Quarter
$
30.71

 
$
25.57

 
$
29.64

 
$
27.64

First Quarter
$
32.39

 
$
29.07

 
$
31.84

 
$
28.29

At April 29, 2016 , we had approximately 4,700 stockholders of record.
We have paid cash dividends each year since July 1990. For each of fiscal 2016 , 2015 and 2014 , we paid annual cash dividends of $1.00 per share. For each of fiscal 2016 , 2015 and 2014 , we paid quarterly cash dividends of $0.25 per share.
In November 2015, we announced our intention to increase our dividend in fiscal 2017, subject to quarterly approval by our Board of Directors (the Board), to $1.02 per share for the year, or $0.255 per share on a quarterly basis. This would be an increase from the current $1.00 per share annual dividend, or $0.25 per share on a quarterly basis.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer
The following table sets forth, for the months indicated, our purchases of common stock in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2016 :
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Period
Total Number Of Shares Purchased
 
Average Price Paid Per Share
 
Total Number Of Shares Purchased As Part Of Publicly Announced Plans Or Programs
 
Approximate Dollar Value Of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under The Plans Or Programs
 
(in thousands, except average price paid per share)
January 1, 2016 — January 31, 2016

 
$

 

 
$
750,000

February 1, 2016 — February 29, 2016

 
$

 

 
$
750,000

March 1, 2016 — March 31, 2016

 
$

 

 
$
750,000

Total

 
 
 

 
 
In May 2014, the Board approved a stock repurchase program that authorized us to acquire up to $1 billion of our common stock.
In November 2015, we entered into and closed on an arrangement with Careal Holding AG (Careal) to repurchase 22 million shares of our common stock in a private transaction. The transaction was valued with an effective share repurchase price of $26.81 per share, which represented a 3% discount to the 10-trading day volume weighted average price of our common stock using a reference date of November 5, 2015. Our payment to Careal upon closing was reduced by $0.25 per share to account for our dividend that was paid on December 8, 2015 to stockholders of record on November 19, 2015. As a result of the share repurchase and dividend payment, in total we paid Careal $590 million during the third quarter of fiscal 2016 in connection with the 22 million shares repurchased. The transaction was funded with U.S. cash on hand and effectively concluded the prior $1 billion stock repurchase program approved by the Board in May 2014.
Including the November 2015 share repurchase arrangement with Careal, we repurchased 26 million shares of our common stock for $707 million during fiscal 2016.
In November 2015, the Board approved a new stock repurchase program that authorized us to acquire up to $750 million of our common stock, which remained fully outstanding at March 31, 2016. We anticipate repurchasing shares of our common stock under this new stock repurchase program beginning in fiscal 2017. We expect to repurchase shares on the open market, through solicited or unsolicited privately negotiated transactions or otherwise from time to time based on market conditions and other factors.

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During fiscal 2015, we repurchased 7.2 million shares of our common stock for $215 million . During fiscal 2014, we repurchased 16.3 million shares of our common stock for $505 million .

Item 6. Selected Financial Data.
The information set forth below should be read in conjunction with the “Results of Operations” section included in Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
 
Year Ended March 31,
Statement Of Operations And Other Data
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
(in millions, except per share amounts)
Revenue (1)
$
4,025

 
$
4,262

 
$
4,412

 
$
4,504

 
$
4,658

Income from continuing operations (1) (2)
$
769

 
$
810

 
$
887

 
$
921

 
$
901

Cash provided by operating activities — continuing operations (1)
$
1,034

 
$
1,030

 
$
973

 
$
1,359

 
$
1,456

Basic income per common share from continuing operations (1)
$
1.79

 
$
1.83

 
$
1.97

 
$
2.00

 
$
1.84

Diluted income per common share from continuing operations (1)
$
1.78

 
$
1.82

 
$
1.96

 
$
1.99

 
$
1.83

Dividends declared per common share (3)
$
1.00

 
$
1.00

 
$
1.00

 
$
1.00

 
$
0.40

 
At March 31,
Balance Sheet Data
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
(in millions)
Working capital surplus (4) (5) (6)
$
667

 
$
1,048

 
$
635

 
$
584

 
$
213

Working capital surplus, excluding current deferred revenue (1) (5) (6) (7)
$
2,864

 
$
3,162

 
$
3,054

 
$
3,010

 
$
2,817

Total assets (5)
$
11,204

 
$
10,973

 
$
12,008

 
$
11,810

 
$
11,991

Long-term debt (less current maturities) (5)
$
1,947

 
$
1,247

 
$
1,244

 
$
1,269

 
$
1,281

Stockholders’ equity
$
5,378

 
$
5,625

 
$
5,570

 
$
5,450

 
$
5,397

(1)
Information presented excludes the results of our discontinued operations.
(2)
In fiscal 2014, we incurred after-tax charges of $114 million for costs associated with our fiscal 2014 rebalancing plan.
(3)
In fiscal 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013, dividends declared per common share were $0.25 per quarter. Dividends declared per common share were $0.05 in each of the first three quarters of fiscal 2012 and $0.25 in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2012.
(4)
Working capital surplus is current assets less current liabilities.
(5)
Prior year amounts have been adjusted to reflect the adoption of Accounting Standards Update No. 2015-03,  Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs (Topic 835). Refer to Note 1, “Significant Accounting Policies” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.
(6)
In fiscal 2016, we adopted Accounting Standards Update No. 2015-17,  Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes (Topic 740) and applied the guidance prospectively to all deferred tax assets and liabilities. Refer to Note 1, “Significant Accounting Policies” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for further details.
(7)
Deferred revenue includes amounts billed or collected in advance of revenue recognition, including subscription license agreements, maintenance and professional services. It does not include unearned revenue on future installments not yet billed at the respective balance sheet dates.

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
Introduction
This “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” (MD&A) is intended to provide an understanding of our financial condition, changes in financial condition, cash flow, liquidity and results of operations. This MD&A should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements and the accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements appearing elsewhere in this Form 10-K and the Risk Factors included in Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K, as well as other cautionary statements and risks described elsewhere in this Form 10-K.


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Business Overview
CA Technologies is a global leader in software solutions enabling customers to plan, develop, manage and secure applications and enterprise environments across distributed, cloud, mobile and mainframe platforms. Most of the Global Fortune 500, as well as many government agencies around the world, rely on CA to help manage their increasingly dynamic and complex environments.
We have a broad portfolio of software solutions that we use to execute our business strategy, including enabling our customers to gain a competitive advantage in the Application Economy. We organize our offerings in Enterprise Solutions, Mainframe Solutions and Services operating segments.
Enterprise Solutions segment includes products that are designed for distributed and cloud computing environments and run on industry standard servers. Within Enterprise Solutions, our areas of focus include:
Agile Management enables customers to more effectively plan and manage the software development process and the business of IT service delivery. Our solutions enable customers to improve delivery time on large projects, reduce costs and optimize resources.
DevOps is adjacent to Agile Management and comprises a range of solutions that allow customers to efficiently deliver and manage applications and IT infrastructure. With our portfolio of solutions, customers can reduce the delivery time of new applications, increase the frequency of new releases and dramatically improve quality.
Security includes a comprehensive set of solutions to address the growing concern across all enterprises and organizations regarding external and internal threats to their environments and the critical data they contain. Our identity-centric security portfolio allows customers to manage identities and regulate access from the device to the data center, providing a complete, end-to-end, and multi-channel security solution.
Mainframe Solutions are designed for the IBM z Systems™ mainframe platform, which runs many of our largest customers' mission-critical business applications, with a focus on lowering cost per transaction, while increasing business agility, security and compliance. Within Mainframe Solutions, our areas of focus include:
Application Development solutions help enable agile development processes, modernize applications and enable collaboration across the mobile to mainframe teams.
Databases and Database Management solutions help customers manage the growth and increasing complexity of data and allow them to address their ever-evolving data management needs and enable web and mobile access of data.
Security & Compliance solutions manage risk and ensure regulatory compliance across the enterprise with modern tools. Our solutions reduce risk from unauthorized access, secure mainframe assets, monitor instances that affect compliance and discover sensitive data. Our solutions secure data at rest and in motion, across the enterprise.
Systems and Operations Management portfolio provides customers with a unified view of their z Systems performance, including their applications, middleware, networks, systems, storage and data.
Services  helps customers reach their IT and business goals primarily by enabling the rapid implementation and adoption of our Mainframe and Enterprise solutions. Our professional services team consists of experienced professionals who provide a variety of services, such as consulting, implementation, application management services, education and support services, to both commercial and government customers. In fiscal 2016, as a result of our acquisition of Rally, Agile coaches, whose primary focus is training customers on the implementation of the Agile software development methodology, are incorporated into the Services segment.
Our goal is to be the world’s leading independent software provider for IT management and security solutions that help organizations and enterprises plan, develop, manage, and secure modern software environments, across mainframe, distributed, cloud and mobile platforms. To accomplish this, key elements of our strategy include:
Drive organic innovation. Our product development strategy is built around key growth areas, where we are focused on innovating and delivering differentiated products and solutions across both distributed and mainframe. A key element of our organic innovation approach is the broad adoption of the Agile methodology to govern our software development process, which we believe will improve our product development time-to-market, quality and relevance, and support our customer success initiatives.
Incubate technology for next generation products. We are researching and dedicating resources to the development of emerging technologies that are logical extensions of our core areas of focus. We are working on opportunities in areas such as containers, data analytics, big data and open source, some of which may become enhancements or extensions of our current product portfolio and others may evolve to new product categories.
Pursue new business models and expanded routes to market.   While our traditional on-premise software delivery remains core to many enterprise customers, we see cloud-based and try-and-buy models as increasingly attractive for our customers.

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Expand relationships with our global customer base and address opportunities with new and underserved customers. We are focused on maintaining and expanding the strong relationships with our established customer base, and will proactively target growth with other potential customers that we do not currently serve. In parallel, we are seeking to broaden our customer base to new buyers in geographic regions we have underserved. The emerging roles of Chief Information Security Officers and Chief Development Officers align with the shifts we are driving across our portfolio to meet the needs of speed and agility.
Execute strategic and disciplined technology acquisitions. We intend to supplement our organic innovation efforts with key technology acquisitions that are within or adjacent to our core areas of focus. We conduct a thorough acquisition process, which includes build vs. buy analysis and opportunity identification, detailed business case modeling, rigorous due diligence and extensive integration, to fully realize the value of our acquisitions.
We offer our solutions through our direct sales force and indirectly through our partners. We remain focused on strengthening relationships with our core customers and partners - approximately our top 500 accounts, which we refer to as our “Platinum” accounts - through product leadership, account management and a differentiated customer experience. We are working to accelerate the velocity of our sales transactions by dedicating sales resources and deploying additional solutions to address opportunities to sell to new enterprises and to expand our relationship with existing non-Platinum customers - which we refer to as our “Named” and “Growth/Partners” (or Partner-led) customers. Named customers are large potential customers with whom we currently do not have a strong presence and where a competitor often has an established relationship. Growth/Partners customers are mid-size potential customers with whom we currently do not have a strong presence and generally address through partners. Additionally, we have implemented broad-based business initiatives to drive continued improvement in sales execution. We are continuing to shift to a more product-driven sales approach, using real-time data and intelligence to drive on-going evolution of our go-to-market strategy towards the highest potential and highest-yielding markets.
We have sharpened our focus and processes to better reach new customers to drive higher velocity and a broadening customer mix. Our marketing and sales organizations are utilizing common systems and analytics to initiate and respond to market opportunities, optimize resources, maximize efficiency and drive awareness and consideration of the CA brand and portfolio capabilities across our broad base of customers and prospects.

CA Technologies Business Model
We generate revenue from the following sources: license fees — licensing our products on a right-to-use basis; maintenance fees — providing customer technical support and product enhancements; service fees — providing professional services such as product implementation, consulting, customer training and customer education; and SaaS offerings. SaaS is another delivery model we offer to our customers who prefer to utilize our technology off-premise with little to no infrastructure required. Our SaaS offerings are typically licensed using a subscription fee, most commonly on a monthly or annual basis. The timing and amount of fees recognized as revenue during a reporting period are determined in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America (GAAP). Revenue is reported net of applicable sales taxes.
Under our business model, we offer customers a wide range of licensing options. For traditional, on-premise licensing, we typically license to customers either perpetually or on a subscription basis for a specified term. Our customers also purchase maintenance and support services that provide technical support and any general product enhancements released during the maintenance period.
Under a perpetual license, the customer has the right to use the licensed program for an indefinite period of time upon payment of a one-time license fee. If the customer wants to receive maintenance, the customer is required to pay an additional annual maintenance fee.
Under a subscription license, the customer has the right to usage and maintenance of the licensed products during the term of the agreement. Under our flexible licensing terms, customers can license our software products under multi-year licenses, with most customers choosing terms of one-to-five years, although longer terms may sometimes be negotiated by customers in order to obtain greater cost certainty. Thereafter, the license generally renews for a similar period of time on similar terms and conditions, but subject to the customer’s payment of our then prevailing subscription license and maintenance fee.
For our mainframe solutions, the majority of our licenses provide customers with the right to use one or more of our products up to a specific license capacity, generally measured in millions of instructions per second (MIPS). For these products, customers may acquire additional capacity during the term of a license by paying us an additional license fee and maintenance fee. For our enterprise solutions, our licenses may provide customers with the right to use one or more of our products limited to a number of servers, users or copies, among other things. Customers may license these products for additional servers, users or copies, etc., during the term of a license by paying us an additional license fee.
Our services are typically delivered on a time-and-materials basis, but alternative pay arrangements, such as fixed fee or staff augmentations, could be offered as well.


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Executive Summary
A summary of key results for fiscal 2016 compared with fiscal 2015 is as follows:
Revenue
Total revenue decreased $237 million , or 6% , primarily as a result of an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $212 million during fiscal 2016 and, to a lesser extent, a decrease in subscription and maintenance revenue.
We expect revenue for fiscal 2017 to be generally consistent or increase slightly compared with fiscal 2016.
Bookings
Total bookings increased 18% primarily due to an increase in renewal bookings, including the renewal with a large system integrator in excess of $500 million that occurred during the second quarter of fiscal 2016 and bookings relating to our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions of Rally Software Development Corp. (Rally) and Xceedium, Inc. (Xceedium) (together, our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions). This was partially offset by an unfavorable foreign exchange effect.
Renewal bookings increased by a percentage in the mid-twenties compared with the year-ago period primarily due to the aforementioned renewal with a large system integrator. Excluding the large system integrator renewal, renewal bookings increased by a percentage in the low single digits for fiscal 2016 compared with the year-ago period primarily due to the increase in renewal bookings relating to our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions.
Total new product sales increased by a percentage in the mid-single digits for fiscal 2016 compared with the year-ago period. This increase was primarily due to the new sales in connection with our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions and renewals, including the aforementioned renewal with a large system integrator.
Mainframe solutions new product sales, including capacity, increased by a percentage in the high-teens compared with the year-ago period primarily due to the aforementioned renewal with a large system integrator and new product sales in connection with other renewals.
Enterprise solutions new product sales increased by a percentage in the low-single digits compared with the year-ago period primarily as a result of Enterprise Solutions new product sales associated with our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions. Excluding our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions, Enterprise Solutions new product sales decreased by a percentage in the high single digits for fiscal 2016 compared with the year-ago period.
We expect fiscal 2017 renewals to increase by a percentage in the mid-single digits compared with fiscal 2016.
Expenses
Total expenses before interest and income taxes decreased 7% compared with fiscal 2015 primarily as a result of a decrease in non-acquisition personnel costs and a favorable effect from foreign exchange during fiscal 2016. These decreases were partially offset by an increase in costs from our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions.
Income taxes
Income tax expense for fiscal 2016 and fiscal 2015 was $315 million and $305 million , respectively.
Our fiscal 2016 and 2015 effective tax rate was 29.1% and 27.4% , respectively. This increase resulted primarily from the favorable resolutions of uncertain tax positions in fiscal 2015 relating to the completion of the examination of our U.S. federal income tax returns for the tax years ended March 31, 2011 and 2012.
Diluted income per common share
Diluted income per common share from continuing operations decreased to $1.78 from $1.82 , primarily due to the decrease in revenue, partially offset by the decrease in operating expenses and the decrease in the weighted average common shares outstanding.
Segment results
Mainframe Solutions revenue decreased primarily due to an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $125 million and, to a lesser extent, insufficient revenue from new sales to offset the decline in revenue contribution from renewals. Mainframe Solutions operating margin for fiscal 2016 increased primarily due to a decrease in personnel-related costs.
Enterprise Solutions revenue decreased due to an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $71 million. Excluding the unfavorable effect of foreign exchange, Enterprise Solutions revenue increased as a result of additional revenue associated with our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions. Enterprise Solutions operating margin for fiscal 2016 decreased primarily due to costs from our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions, partially offset by a decrease in non-acquisition personnel-related costs.

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Services revenue decreased primarily due to an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $16 million and, to a lesser extent, a decline in professional services engagements in the first half of fiscal 2016 and during fiscal 2015, partially offset by an increase in services revenue from our Rally acquisition. Operating margin for Services increased to 7% for fiscal 2016 compared with 3% for fiscal 2015 primarily due to a decrease in personnel-related costs as a result of our prior period severance actions and a decrease in external consulting costs.
Cash flow from continuing operations
Net cash provided by continuing operating activities increased slightly due to lower disbursements, lower payments associated with our Fiscal Year 2014 Rebalancing Plan (Fiscal 2014 Plan) and lower income tax payments, net, offset by a decrease in cash collections from billings, which included lower single installment payments. There was an overall unfavorable effect from foreign exchange on net cash provided by continuing operating activities.

Performance Indicators
Management uses several quantitative and qualitative performance indicators to assess our financial results and condition. Each provides a measurement of the performance of our business and how well we are executing our plan.
Our predominantly subscription-based business model is less common among our competitors in the software industry and it may be difficult to compare the results for many of our performance indicators with those of our competitors. The following is a summary of the performance indicators that management uses to review performance:
 
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
Change
 
Percent Change
 
 
2016 (1)
 
2015 (1)
 
 
 
(dollars in millions)
 
 
Total revenue
 
$
4,025

 
$
4,262

 
$
(237
)
 
(6
)%
Income from continuing operations
 
$
769

 
$
810

 
$
(41
)
 
(5
)%
Cash provided by operating activities — continuing operations
 
$
1,034

 
$
1,030

 
$
4

 
 %
Total bookings
 
$
4,247

 
$
3,609

 
$
638

 
18
 %
Subscription and maintenance bookings
 
$
3,489

 
$
2,942

 
$
547

 
19
 %
Weighted average subscription and maintenance license agreement duration in years
 
3.71

 
3.24

 
0.47

 
15
 %
 
 
At March 31,
 
Change
 
Percent Change
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
 
 
(dollars in millions)
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
2,812

 
$
2,804

 
$
8

 
 %
Total debt
 
$
1,953

 
$
1,257

 
$
696

 
55
 %
Total expected future cash collections from committed contracts (1) (2)
 
$
4,520

 
$
4,205

 
$
315

 
7
 %
Total revenue backlog (1) (2)
 
$
6,829

 
$
6,530

 
$
299

 
5
 %
Total current revenue backlog (1) (2)
 
$
3,113

 
$
3,141

 
$
(28
)
 
(1
)%
(1)
Information presented excludes the results of our discontinued operations.
(2)
Refer to the discussion in the “Liquidity and Capital Resources” section of this MD&A for additional information about expected future cash collections from committed contracts, billing backlog and revenue backlog.
Analyses of our performance indicators shown above and our segment performance can be found in the “Results of Operations” and “Liquidity and Capital Resources” sections of this MD&A.
Total Revenue: Total revenue is the amount of revenue recognized during the reporting period from the sale of license, maintenance and professional services agreements. Amounts recognized as subscription and maintenance revenue are recognized ratably over the term of the agreement. Professional services revenue is generally recognized as the services are performed or recognized on a ratable basis over the term of the related software license. Software fees and other revenue generally represents license fee revenue recognized at the inception of a license agreement (up-front basis) and also includes our software as a service (SaaS) revenue, which is recognized as services are provided.

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Subscription and Maintenance Revenue: Subscription and maintenance revenue is the amount of revenue recognized ratably during the reporting period from: (i) subscription license agreements that were in effect during the period, generally including maintenance that is bundled with and not separately identifiable from software usage fees or product sales, (ii) maintenance agreements associated with providing customer technical support and access to software fixes and upgrades that are separately identifiable from software usage fees or product sales, and (iii) license agreements bundled with additional products, maintenance or professional services for which vendor specific objective evidence (VSOE) has not been established. These amounts include the sale of products directly by us, as well as by distributors and volume partners, value-added resellers and exclusive representatives to end-users, where the contracts incorporate the right for end-users to receive unspecified future software products, and other contracts entered into in close proximity or contemplation of such agreements. The vast majority of our subscription and maintenance revenue in any particular reporting period comes from contracts signed in prior periods, generally pursuant to contracts ranging in duration from three to five years.
Total Bookings: Total bookings, or sales, includes the incremental value of all subscription, maintenance and professional services contracts and software fees and other contracts entered into during the reporting period and is generally reflective of the amount of products and services during the period that our customers have agreed to purchase from us. License fees for bookings attributed to sales of software products for which revenue is recognized on an up-front basis is reflected in “Software fees and other” in our Consolidated Statements of Operations, while the maintenance portion is reflected in “Subscription and maintenance” in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Our management looks within total bookings at renewal bookings, which we define as bookings attributable to the renewable value of a prior contract ( i.e., the maintenance value and, in the case of non-perpetual licenses, the license value), and at total new product sales, which we define as sales of mainframe and enterprise solutions products and mainframe solutions capacity that are new or in addition to products or mainframe solutions capacity previously contracted for by a customer. Renewal bookings, as we report them, do not include new product and capacity sales and professional services arrangements and are reflected as subscription and maintenance bookings in the period (for which revenue would be recognized ratably over the term of the contract). Renewals can close before their scheduled renewal date for a number of reasons, including customer preference, customer needs for additional products or capacity, or our preference. The level of contracts closed prior to scheduled expiration dates and the reasons for such closings can vary from quarter to quarter. Generally, quarters with smaller renewal inventories result in a lower level of bookings because renewal bookings will be lower and, to a lesser extent, because renewals remain an important opportunity for new product sales.
Mainframe solutions new product sales and capacity growth can be inconsistent on both a quarterly and annual basis. We believe the period-over-period change in mainframe solutions new product sales and capacity combined is a more appropriate measure of performance and, therefore, we provide only total mainframe solutions new sales information, which includes mainframe solutions capacity. The amount of new product sales for a period, as currently tracked by us, requires estimation by management and has been historically reported by providing only growth rate comparisons. Within a given period, the amount of new product sales may not be material to the change in our total bookings or revenue compared with prior periods. New product sales can be reflected as subscription and maintenance bookings in the period (for which revenue would be recognized ratably over the term of the contract) or in software fees and other bookings (which are recognized as software fees and other revenue in the current period).
Subscription and Maintenance Bookings: Subscription and maintenance bookings is the aggregate incremental amount we expect to collect from our customers over the terms of the underlying subscription and maintenance agreements entered into during a reporting period. These amounts include the sale of products either directly by us or through distributors and volume partners, value-added resellers and exclusive representatives to end-users and may include the right for the customer to receive unspecified future software products and/or additional products, services or other fees for which we have not established VSOE for all undelivered elements. These amounts are expected to be recognized ratably as subscription and maintenance revenue over the applicable term of the agreements. Subscription and maintenance bookings excludes the value associated with perpetual licenses for which revenue is recognized on an up-front basis, SaaS offerings and professional services arrangements.
Within bookings, we also consider the yield on our renewals. We define “renewal yield” as the percentage of the renewable value of a prior contract ( i.e., the maintenance value and, in the case of non-perpetual licenses, the license value) realized in current period bookings. The renewable value of a prior contract is an estimate affected by various factors including contractual renewal terms, price increases and other conditions. Price increases are not considered as part of the renewable value of the prior period contract. We estimate the aggregate renewal yield for a quarter based on a review of material transactions representing a majority of the dollar value of renewals during the current period. There may be no correlation between year-over-year changes in bookings and year-over-year changes in renewal yield, since renewal yield is based on the renewable value of contracts of various durations, most of which are longer than one year.

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The license and maintenance agreements that contribute to subscription and maintenance bookings represent binding payment commitments by customers over periods that range generally from three to five years, although in certain cases customer commitments can be for longer or shorter periods. These current period bookings are often renewals of prior contracts that also had various durations, usually from three to five years. The amount of new subscription and maintenance bookings recorded in a period is affected by the volume, duration and value of contracts renewed during that period. Subscription and maintenance bookings typically increases in each consecutive quarter during a fiscal year, with the first quarter having the least bookings and the fourth quarter having the most bookings. However, subscription and maintenance bookings may not always follow the pattern of increasing in consecutive quarters during a fiscal year, and the quarter-to-quarter differences in subscription and maintenance bookings may vary. Given the varying durations and dollar amounts of the contracts being renewed, year-over-year comparisons of bookings are not always indicative of the overall bookings trend.
Additionally, period-to-period changes in subscription and maintenance bookings do not necessarily correlate to changes in cash receipts. The contribution to current period revenue from subscription and maintenance bookings from any single license or maintenance agreement is relatively small, since revenue is recognized ratably over the applicable term for these agreements.
Weighted Average Subscription and Maintenance License Agreement Duration in Years: The weighted average subscription and maintenance license agreement duration in years reflects the duration of all subscription and maintenance agreements executed during a period, weighted by the total contract value of each individual agreement. Weighted average subscription and maintenance license agreement duration in years can fluctuate from period to period depending on the mix of license agreements entered into during a period. Weighted average duration information is disclosed in order to provide additional understanding of the volume of our bookings.
Annualized Subscription and Maintenance Bookings: Annualized subscription and maintenance bookings is an indicator that normalizes the bookings recorded in the current period to account for contract length. It is calculated by dividing the total value of all new subscription and maintenance license agreements entered into during a period by the weighted average subscription and license agreement duration in years for all such subscription and maintenance license agreements recorded during the same period.
Total Revenue Backlog: Total revenue backlog represents the aggregate amount we expect to recognize as revenue in the future as either subscription and maintenance revenue, professional services revenue or software fees and other revenue associated with contractually committed amounts billed or to be billed as of the balance sheet date. Total revenue backlog is composed of amounts recognized as liabilities in our Consolidated Balance Sheets as deferred revenue (billed or collected) as well as unearned amounts yet to be billed under subscription and maintenance and software fees and other agreements. Classification of amounts as current and noncurrent depends on when such amounts are expected to be earned and, therefore, recognized as revenue. Amounts that are expected to be earned and, therefore, recognized as revenue in 12 months or less are classified as current, while amounts expected to be earned in greater than 12 months are classified as noncurrent. The portion of the total revenue backlog that relates to subscription and maintenance agreements is recognized as revenue evenly on a monthly basis over the duration of the underlying agreements and is reported as subscription and maintenance revenue in our Consolidated Statements of Operations. Generally, we believe that an increase or decrease in the current portion of revenue backlog on a year-over-year basis is a favorable or unfavorable indicator of future subscription and maintenance revenue performance, respectively, due to the high percentage of our revenue that is recognized from license agreements that are already committed and being recognized ratably. The value of backlog can fluctuate based upon the timing of contract expirations.
“Deferred revenue (billed or collected)” is composed of: (i) amounts received from customers in advance of revenue recognition and (ii) amounts billed but not collected for which revenue has not yet been earned.


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Results of Operations
The following table presents revenue and expense line items reported in our Consolidated Statements of Operations for fiscal 2016 , 2015 and 2014 and the period-over-period dollar and percentage changes for those line items. These comparisons of past results are not necessarily indicative of future results.
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
Dollar Change
2016/2015
 
Percent Change
2016/2015
 
Dollar Change
2015/2014
 
Percent Change
2015/2014
 
2016 (1)
 
2015 (1)
 
2014 (1)
 
 
(dollars in millions)
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Subscription and maintenance
$
3,317

 
$
3,560

 
$
3,683

 
$
(243
)
 
(7
)%
 
$
(123
)
 
(3
)%
Professional services
326

 
351

 
379

 
(25
)
 
(7
)%
 
(28
)
 
(7
)%
Software fees and other
382

 
351

 
350

 
31

 
9
 %
 
1

 
 %
Total revenue
$
4,025

 
$
4,262

 
$
4,412

 
$
(237
)
 
(6
)%
 
$
(150
)
 
(3
)%
Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Costs of licensing and maintenance
$
283

 
$
297

 
$
296

 
$
(14
)
 
(5
)%
 
$
1

 
 %
Cost of professional services
300

 
338

 
353

 
(38
)
 
(11
)%
 
(15
)
 
(4
)%
Amortization of capitalized software costs
256

 
273

 
271

 
(17
)
 
(6
)%
 
2

 
1
 %
Selling and marketing
1,006

 
1,060

 
1,104

 
(54
)
 
(5
)%
 
(44
)
 
(4
)%
General and administrative
367

 
377

 
395

 
(10
)
 
(3
)%
 
(18
)
 
(5
)%
Product development and enhancements
560

 
603

 
574

 
(43
)
 
(7
)%
 
29

 
5
 %
Depreciation and amortization of other intangible assets
106

 
129

 
144

 
(23
)
 
(18
)%
 
(15
)
 
(10
)%
Other expenses, net
12

 
23

 
205

 
(11
)
 
(48
)%
 
(182
)
 
(89
)%
Total expense before interest and income taxes
$
2,890

 
$
3,100

 
$
3,342

 
$
(210
)
 
(7
)%
 
$
(242
)
 
(7
)%
Income from continuing operations before interest and income taxes
$
1,135

 
$
1,162

 
$
1,070

 
$
(27
)
 
(2
)%
 
$
92

 
9
 %
Interest expense, net
51

 
47

 
54

 
4

 
9
 %
 
(7
)
 
(13
)%
Income from continuing operations before income taxes
$
1,084

 
$
1,115

 
$
1,016

 
$
(31
)
 
(3
)%
 
$
99

 
10
 %
Income tax expense
315

 
305

 
129

 
10

 
3
 %
 
176

 
136
 %
Income from continuing operations
$
769

 
$
810

 
$
887

 
$
(41
)
 
(5
)%
 
$
(77
)
 
(9
)%
(1)
Information presented excludes the results of our discontinued operations.

30



The following table sets forth, for the fiscal years indicated, the percentage of total revenue presented by the items in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations:
 
 
Percentage of Total Revenue
for the Year Ended March 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Subscription and maintenance
 
82
%
 
84
%
 
83
%
Professional services
 
8

 
8

 
9

Software fees and other
 
10

 
8

 
8

Total revenue
 
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%
Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Costs of licensing and maintenance
 
7
%
 
7
%
 
7
%
Cost of professional services
 
7

 
8

 
8

Amortization of capitalized software costs
 
6

 
6

 
6

Selling and marketing
 
25

 
25

 
25

General and administrative
 
9

 
9

 
9

Product development and enhancements
 
14

 
14

 
13

Depreciation and amortization of other intangible assets
 
3

 
3

 
3

Other expenses, net
 

 
1

 
5

Total expenses before interest and income taxes
 
72
%
 
73
%
 
76
%
Income from continuing operations before interest and income taxes
 
28
%
 
27
%
 
24
%
Interest expense, net
 
1

 
1

 
1

Income from continuing operations before income taxes
 
27
%
 
26
%
 
23
%
Income tax expense
 
8

 
7

 
3

Income from continuing operations
 
19
%
 
19
%
 
20
%
Note: Amounts may not add to their respective totals due to rounding.
Revenue
Total Revenue
Total revenue decreased in fiscal 2016 compared with fiscal 2015 primarily as a result of an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $212 million during fiscal 2016 and, to a lesser extent, a decrease in subscription and maintenance revenue as described below. The decreases were partially offset by an increase in revenue during fiscal 2016 of $97 million associated with our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions, primarily reflected within software fees and other revenue.
Total revenue decreased in fiscal 2015 compared with fiscal 2014 primarily due to a decrease in subscription and maintenance revenue and professional services revenue. In addition, during fiscal 2015, there was an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $71 million compared with fiscal 2014.
We expect revenue for fiscal 2017 to be generally consistent or increase slightly compared with fiscal 2016.
Subscription and Maintenance
The decrease in subscription and maintenance revenue for fiscal 2016 compared with fiscal 2015 was primarily attributable to an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $183 million for fiscal 2016 and, to a lesser extent, a decrease in Mainframe Solutions revenue (refer to “Performance of Segments” below).
The decrease in subscription and maintenance revenue for fiscal 2015 compared with fiscal 2014 was primarily attributable to an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $59 million for fiscal 2015 and a decrease in Mainframe Solutions revenue.

31



Professional Services
Professional services revenue primarily includes product implementation, consulting, customer education and customer training. Professional services revenue for fiscal 2016 decreased compared with fiscal 2015 primarily due to an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $16 million for fiscal 2016 and, to a lesser extent, a decline in professional services engagements in the first half of fiscal 2016 and fiscal 2015. For fiscal 2016, professional services revenue includes revenue of $18 million from our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisition of Rally. For the long term, we expect new versions of our on-premise software to be easier to implement and a higher percentage of our business to shift to a SaaS-based model, which could potentially reduce the demand for our professional services engagements.
Professional services revenue for fiscal 2015 decreased compared with fiscal 2014 primarily due to a decrease in the size and number of professional services engagements during the first half of fiscal 2015, including non-core engagements with government customers that are not directly related to our software product sales. We also experienced a decline in professional services engagements that are connected to new product sales, due to a decrease in our new product sales. There was also an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $6 million for fiscal 2015.
Software Fees and Other
Software fees and other revenue consists of revenue that is recognized on an up-front basis and also includes our SaaS revenue. Upfront revenue includes revenue associated with enterprise solutions products sold on an up-front basis directly by our sales force or through transactions with distributors and volume partners, value-added resellers and exclusive representatives (sometimes referred to as our “indirect” or “channel” revenue). Our SaaS revenue is recognized as the services are provided, generally ratably over the term of the SaaS arrangement, rather than up-front.
Software fees and other revenue for fiscal 2016 increased compared with fiscal 2015 due to an increase of $70 million from revenue associated with our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions, mainly due to SaaS revenue from Rally. This increase was partially offset by an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $13 million for fiscal 2016 and a decrease in the percentage of enterprise solutions product sales recognized on an up-front basis during the first half of fiscal 2016.
Software fees and other revenue for fiscal 2015 increased slightly compared with fiscal 2014 primarily as a result of an increase of $14 million in SaaS revenue, offset by a decrease of $12 million in sales of enterprise solutions products recognized on an up-front basis. There was also an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $6 million for fiscal 2015.
Total Revenue by Geography
The following table presents the amount of revenue earned from sales to unaffiliated customers in the United States and international regions and corresponding percentage changes for fiscal 2016 , 2015 and 2014 :
 
 
Fiscal 2016
Compared With
Fiscal 2015
 
Fiscal 2015
Compared With
Fiscal 2014
 
 
(dollars in millions)
 
 
2016 (1)
 
% Of Total
 
2015 (1)
 
% Of Total
 
%
Change
 
2015 (1)
 
% Of Total
 
2014 (1)
 
% Of Total
 
%
Change
United States
 
$
2,585

 
64
%
 
$
2,615

 
61
%
 
(1
)%
 
$
2,615

 
61
%
 
$
2,645

 
60
%
 
(1
)%
International
 
1,440

 
36
%
 
1,647

 
39
%
 
(13
)%
 
1,647

 
39
%
 
1,767

 
40
%
 
(7
)%
Total
 
$
4,025

 
100
%
 
$
4,262

 
100
%
 
(6
)%
 
$
4,262

 
100
%
 
$
4,412

 
100
%
 
(3
)%
(1)
Information presented excludes the results of our discontinued operations.
Revenue in the United States decreased by $30 million , or 1% , for fiscal 2016 compared with fiscal 2015 , primarily due to a decrease in subscription and maintenance revenue and professional services revenue, as described above, partially offset by revenue associated with our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions. International revenue decreased by $207 million , or 13% , for fiscal 2016 compared with fiscal 2015 , due to an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $212 million .
Revenue in the United States decreased by $30 million, or 1%, for fiscal 2015 compared with fiscal 2014, primarily due to a decrease in subscription and maintenance revenue and professional services revenue, as described above. International revenue decreased by $120 million, or 7%, for fiscal 2015 compared with fiscal 2014, primarily due to an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $71 million and a decrease in subscription and maintenance revenue within the Europe, Middle East and Africa region.
Price changes do not have a material effect on revenue in a given period as a result of our ratable subscription model.

32



Expenses
Operating Expenses
Operating expenses for fiscal 2016 decreased compared with fiscal 2015 primarily as a result of a decrease in non-acquisition personnel costs of $129 million and a favorable effect from foreign exchange of $69 million during fiscal 2016, which includes a year-over-year change in our foreign exchange derivative contracts reflected within other expenses, net. These decreases were partially offset by an increase in costs from our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions of $149 million.
Operating expenses for fiscal 2015 decreased compared with fiscal 2014 primarily as a result of a decrease in costs associated with our Fiscal Year 2014 Rebalancing Plan (Fiscal 2014 Plan), as described below, a favorable effect from foreign exchange and a decrease in selling and marketing costs driven by a decrease in commissions expense due to lower new sales during fiscal 2015. These decreases were partially offset by an increase in severance costs of $40 million as a result of our fourth quarter fiscal 2015 severance actions.
Costs of Licensing and Maintenance
Costs of licensing and maintenance include technical support, royalties, SaaS hosting, and other manufacturing and distribution costs. Costs of licensing and maintenance for fiscal 2016 decreased compared with fiscal 2015 primarily due to a favorable foreign exchange effect of $9 million and a decrease in royalties, which were partially offset by an increase in costs from our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions of $9 million.
Costs of licensing and maintenance for fiscal 2015 were generally consistent with fiscal 2014.
Cost of Professional Services
Cost of professional services consists primarily of our personnel-related costs associated with providing professional services and training to customers. Cost of professional services for fiscal 2016 decreased compared with fiscal 2015 primarily due to a decrease in non-acquisition personnel-related costs of $25 million, a decrease in external consulting costs of $14 million and a favorable foreign exchange effect of $14 million, partially offset by an increase in expenses of $18 million for fiscal 2016 from our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions. Operating margin for professional services increased to 8% for fiscal 2016 compared with 4% for fiscal 2015 . The increase in operating margin for professional services was primarily attributable to the decrease in non-acquisition personnel-related costs as mentioned above.
Cost of professional services for fiscal 2015 decreased compared with fiscal 2014. Operating margin for professional services decreased to 4% for fiscal 2015 compared with 7% for fiscal 2014. The decrease in operating margin for professional services was attributable to a number of factors, including the decrease in revenue, lower utilization rates for professional services personnel due to the decrease in the number of professional services engagements and costs associated with severance actions that occurred during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2015.
Operating margin for professional services does not include certain additional direct costs that are included within the Services segment (refer to “Performance of Segments” below). Expenses for the Services segment consist of cost of professional services and other direct costs included within selling and marketing and general and administrative expenses.
Amortization of Capitalized Software Costs
Amortization of capitalized software costs consists of the amortization of both purchased software and internally generated capitalized software development costs. Internally generated capitalized software development costs relate to new products and significant enhancements to existing software products that have reached the technological feasibility stage.
We evaluate the useful lives and recoverability of capitalized software and other intangible assets when events or changes in circumstances indicate that an impairment may exist. These evaluations require complex assumptions about key factors such as future customer demand, technology trends and the impact of those factors on the technology we acquire and develop for our products. Impairments or revisions to useful lives could result from the use of alternative assumptions that reflect reasonably possible outcomes related to future customer demand or technology trends for assets within the Enterprise Solutions segment.
The decrease in amortization of capitalized software costs for fiscal 2016 compared with fiscal 2015 was primarily due to a decrease in amortization expense from capitalized software costs that became fully amortized in recent periods, partially offset by amortization of capitalized software costs related to our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions. In addition, during fiscal 2015, amortization expenses included an impairment charge of $21 million (refer to Note 6, “Long Lived Assets,” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information).
Since fiscal year 2014, we have continued to leverage Agile development methodologies, which are characterized by a more dynamic development process with more frequent revisions to a product release’s features and functions as the software is being developed. This has allowed us to commence capitalization much later in the development life cycle. As such, the amount to be capitalized for internally developed software costs was not material to our consolidated financial statements for fiscal years 2016 and 2015.

33



The increase in amortization of capitalized software costs for fiscal 2015 compared with fiscal 2014 was primarily due to impairments recorded during fiscal 2015 of $21 million relating to capitalized software (refer to Note 6, “Long Lived Assets,” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information), which was offset by a decrease in amortization expense from capitalized software costs that became fully amortized in recent periods.
Selling and Marketing
Selling and marketing expenses include the costs relating to our sales force, channel partners, corporate and business marketing and customer training programs. For fiscal 2016 , the decrease in selling and marketing expenses compared with fiscal 2015 was primarily attributable to a favorable foreign exchange effect of $47 million and a decrease in non-acquisition personnel-related costs of $44 million as a result of a lower headcount, partially offset by costs of $54 million from our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions.
For fiscal 2015, the decrease in selling and marketing expenses compared with fiscal 2014 was primarily attributable to a favorable foreign exchange effect of $15 million, a decrease in commissions expense of $13 million due to lower new sales during fiscal 2015, a decrease in personnel related costs of $12 million from a reduced head count as a result of the Fiscal 2014 Plan and a decrease in external consultants costs of $9 million. These decreases were partially offset by $10 million in severance costs during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2015.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses include the costs of corporate functions, including our executive leadership and administration groups, finance, legal, human resources, corporate communications and other costs such as provisions for doubtful accounts. For fiscal 2016 , general and administrative expenses decreased compared with fiscal 2015 primarily due to a favorable foreign exchange effect of $22 million and a decrease in non-acquisition personnel-related costs of $15 million, partially offset by $36 million of costs associated with our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions.
For fiscal 2015, general and administrative expenses decreased compared with fiscal 2014, primarily due to lower personnel-related expenses and a favorable foreign exchange effect of $9 million. These decreases were partially offset by $5 million in severance costs during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2015.
Product Development and Enhancements
For fiscal 2016 and fiscal 2015 , product development and enhancements expenses represented 14% of total revenue. The decrease in product development and enhancements expenses was primarily attributable to the decrease in non-acquisition personnel-related costs of $45 million as a result of a lower headcount and a favorable foreign exchange effect of $12 million, partially offset by an increase in costs of $32 million from our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions.
For fiscal 2015 and fiscal 2014, product development and enhancements expenses represented 14% and 13% of total revenue, respectively. The increase in product development and enhancements expenses was attributable to the decrease in capitalized software development costs of approximately $33 million (refer to “Amortization of Capitalized Software Costs” above), partially offset by a decrease in personnel-related costs from a reduced headcount as a result of the Fiscal 2014 Plan. The decrease in personnel-related costs was partially offset by $16 million in severance costs during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2015.
Depreciation and Amortization of Other Intangible Assets
The decrease in depreciation and amortization of other intangible assets for fiscal 2016 compared with fiscal 2015 was primarily due to a decrease in amortization expense associated with other intangible assets that became fully amortized in recent periods and, to a lesser extent, a decrease in property and equipment depreciation expense.
The decrease in depreciation and amortization of other intangible assets for fiscal 2015 compared with fiscal 2014 was primarily due to a decrease in property and equipment depreciation expense.
Other Expenses, Net
The summary of other expenses, net was as follows:
 
 
Year Ended March 31,
(in millions)
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Fiscal 2014 Plan
 
$
(1
)
 
$
17

 
$
168

Legal settlements
 
(13
)
 
15

 
29

Losses (gains) from foreign exchange derivative contracts
 
6

 
(31
)
 
(20
)
Losses from foreign exchange rate fluctuations
 
20

 
17

 
38

Other miscellaneous items
 

 
5

 
(10
)
Total
 
$
12

 
$
23

 
$
205


34



For fiscal 2016 , other expenses, net included a foreign currency transaction loss of $11 million relating to the remeasurement of monetary assets and liabilities of our Argentina subsidiary. This loss arose from our use of the foreign currency exchange system in effect for Argentina at March 31, 2016. As of March 31, 2016, our remaining net monetary assets in Argentina are not considered material to our overall financial statement presentation.
For fiscal 2015 and fiscal 2014, other expenses, net included foreign currency transaction losses of $14 million and $6 million, respectively, relating to the remeasurement of monetary assets and liabilities of our Venezuelan subsidiary. As of March 31, 2016, our remaining net monetary assets in Venezuela are not considered material to our overall financial statement presentation.
Interest Expense, Net
Interest expense, net for fiscal 2016 increased compared with fiscal 2015 primarily due to the interest associated with the borrowings of $400 million from our 3.600% Senior Notes due December 2020 and $300 million from our term loan with a maturity date of April 20, 2022, partially offset by the maturity of the 6.125% Senior Notes due December 2014 during the third quarter of fiscal 2015.
Interest expense, net for fiscal 2015 decreased compared with fiscal 2014 primarily due to lower interest expenses during fiscal 2015 as a result of the repayment in full of our 6.125% Senior Notes due December 2014 and an increase in interest income earned from higher interest rates year-over-year.
Refer to the “Liquidity and Capital Resources” section of this MD&A and Note 8, “Debt,” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Income Taxes
Income tax expense for fiscal 2016 , 2015 and 2014 was $315 million , $305 million and $129 million , respectively. Our effective tax rate was 29.1% , 27.4% and 12.7% , for fiscal 2016 , 2015 and 2014 , respectively. We expect a full-year effective tax rate of between 28% and 29% for fiscal 2017.
The increase in the effective tax rate for fiscal 2016 , compared with fiscal 2015 , resulted primarily from the favorable resolutions of uncertain tax positions in fiscal 2015 relating to the completion of the examination of our U.S. federal income tax returns for the tax years ended March 31, 2011 and 2012.
The increase in the effective tax rate for fiscal 2015, compared with fiscal 2014, resulted primarily from the favorable resolutions of uncertain tax positions in fiscal 2014 relating to the completion of the examination of our U.S. federal income tax returns for the tax years ended March 31, 2005, 2006 and 2007.
No provision has been made for U.S. federal income taxes on $2,987 million and $2,759 million at March 31, 2016 and 2015 , respectively, of unremitted earnings of our foreign subsidiaries since we plan to permanently reinvest all such earnings outside the United States. It is not practicable to determine the amount of tax associated with such unremitted earnings.
In November 2013, we received a tax assessment of Brazilian reais 211 million (which translated to $59 million at March 31, 2016), including interest and penalties, from the Brazilian tax authority relating to fiscal 2008-2013. The assessment included a report of findings in connection with the examination. We disagree with the proposed adjustments in the assessment and intend to vigorously dispute these matters through applicable administrative and judicial procedures, as appropriate. While we believe that we will ultimately prevail, if the assessment is not resolved in our favor, it would have an impact on our consolidated financial position, cash flows and results of operations.
We do not believe it is reasonably possible that the amount of unrecognized tax benefits will significantly increase or decrease within the next 12 months.
Refer to Note 15, “Income Taxes,” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Discontinued Operations
In the fourth quarter of fiscal 2016, we sold CA ERwin Data Modeling solution assets (ERwin) for $50 million and recognized a gain on disposal of $4 million , including tax expense of $24 million . The effective tax rate on the disposal was unfavorably affected by non-deductible goodwill of $36 million .
In the second quarter of fiscal 2015, we sold CA arcserve data protection solution assets (arcserve) for $170 million and recognized a gain on disposal of $20 million , including tax expense of $77 million . The effective tax rate on the disposal was unfavorably affected by non-deductible goodwill of $109 million .
The divestitures of ERwin and arcserve result from an effort to rationalize our product portfolio within the Enterprise Solutions segment. The results of these business operations are presented in income from discontinued operations for all periods.
Refer to Note 3, “Divestitures,” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.

35



Performance of Segments
In accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 280, Segment Reporting , we disaggregate our operations into Mainframe Solutions, Enterprise Solutions and Services segments, which are utilized by our Chief Operating Decision Maker, who is our Chief Executive Officer, for evaluating segment performance and allocating resources.
Our Mainframe Solutions and Enterprise Solutions segments comprise our software business organized by the nature of our software offerings and the platform on which the products operate. Our Mainframe Solutions segment products help customers and partners transform mainframe management, gain more value from existing technology and extend mainframe capabilities. Our Mainframe Solutions segment consists of various product offerings, including: Application Development, Databases and Database Management, Security & Compliance, and Systems and Operations Management. Our Enterprise Solutions segment includes products that are designed for distributed and cloud computing environments and run on industry standard servers. Our Enterprise Solutions segment consists of various product offerings, including: Agile Management, DevOps and Security. The Services segment comprises product implementation, consulting, customer education and customer training. These services include those directly related to our mainframe solutions and enterprise solutions.
We regularly enter into a single arrangement with a customer that includes mainframe solutions, enterprise solutions and services. The amount of contract revenue assigned to operating segments is generally based on the manner in which the proposal is made to the customer. The software product revenue is assigned to the Mainframe Solutions and Enterprise Solutions segments based on either: (1) a list price allocation method (which allocates a discount in the total contract price to the individual products in proportion to the list price of the products); (2) allocations included within internal contract approval documents; or (3) the value for individual software products as stated in the customer contract. The price for the implementation, consulting, education and training services is separately stated in the contract and these amounts of contract revenue are assigned to the Services segment. The contract value assigned to each operating segment is then recognized in a manner consistent with the revenue recognition policies we apply to the customer contract for purposes of preparing our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Segment expenses include costs that are controllable by segment managers ( i.e. , direct costs) and, in the case of the Mainframe Solutions and Enterprise Solutions segments, an allocation of shared and indirect costs ( i.e. , allocated costs). Segment-specific direct costs include a portion of selling and marketing costs, licensing and maintenance costs, product development costs and general and administrative costs. Allocated segment costs primarily include indirect and non-segment-specific direct selling and marketing costs and general and administrative costs that are not directly attributable to a specific segment. The basis for allocating shared and indirect costs between the Mainframe Solutions and Enterprise Solutions segments is dependent on the nature of the cost being allocated and is either in proportion to segment revenues or in proportion to the related direct cost category. Expenses for the Services segment consist of cost of professional services and other direct costs included within selling and marketing and general and administrative expenses. There are no allocated or indirect costs for the Services segment.
Segment expenses do not include share-based compensation expense; amortization of purchased software; amortization of other intangible assets; charges relating to rebalancing initiatives that are large enough to require approval from the Board ( i.e., costs associated with our Fiscal 2014 Plan); and other miscellaneous costs. We consider all costs of internally developed software as segment expenses in the period the costs are incurred and as a result, we will add back capitalized internal software costs and exclude amortization of internally developed software costs previously capitalized from segment expenses. A measure of segment assets is not currently provided to our Chief Executive Officer and has therefore not been disclosed.
Segment financial information for fiscal 2016 , 2015 and 2014 is as follows:
Mainframe Solutions
 
Fiscal 2016 (1)
 
Fiscal 2015 (1)
 
Fiscal 2014 (1)
Revenue
 
$
2,215

 
$
2,392

 
$
2,478

Expenses
 
854

 
970

 
996

Segment profit
 
$
1,361

 
$
1,422

 
$
1,482

Segment operating margin
 
61
%
 
59
%
 
60
%
(1)
Information presented excludes the results of our discontinued operations.
For fiscal 2016 , Mainframe Solutions revenue decreased compared with the year-ago period primarily due to an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $125 million and, to a lesser extent, insufficient revenue from new sales to offset the decline in revenue contribution from renewals. Mainframe Solutions operating margin for fiscal 2016 increased compared with the year-ago period primarily due to a decrease in personnel-related costs.

36



For fiscal 2015, Mainframe Solutions revenue decreased compared with the year-ago period primarily due to insufficient revenue from prior period new sales to offset the decline in revenue contribution from renewals. There was also an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $40 million for fiscal 2015. For fiscal 2015, Mainframe Solutions operating margin decreased slightly as a result of the decrease in revenue.
Enterprise Solutions
 
Fiscal 2016 (1)
 
Fiscal 2015 (1)
 
Fiscal 2014 (1)
Revenue
 
$
1,484

 
$
1,519

 
$
1,555

Expenses
 
1,337

 
1,353

 
1,440

Segment profit
 
$
147

 
$
166

 
$
115

Segment operating margin
 
10
%
 
11
%
 
7
%
(1)
Information presented excludes the results of our discontinued operations.
Enterprise Solutions revenue for fiscal 2016 decreased compared with the year-ago period due to an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $71 million. Excluding the unfavorable effect of foreign exchange, Enterprise Solutions revenue increased as a result of additional revenue associated with our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions. Enterprise Solutions operating margin for fiscal 2016 decreased compared with the year-ago period primarily due to costs from our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions of Rally and Xceedium, partially offset by a decrease in non-acquisition personnel-related costs.
Enterprise Solutions revenue for fiscal 2015 decreased compared with the year-ago period primarily due to an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $25 million for fiscal 2015 and, to a lesser extent, a decrease in sales of Enterprise Solutions products recognized within the “Software fees and other” line item of our Consolidated Statements of Operations. Enterprise Solutions operating margin for fiscal 2015 increased compared with the year-ago period primarily as a result of lower commissions and personnel-related expenses.
Services
 
Fiscal 2016
 
Fiscal 2015
 
Fiscal 2014
Revenue
 
$
326

 
$
351

 
$
379

Expenses
 
303

 
342

 
357

Segment profit
 
$
23

 
$
9

 
$
22

Segment operating margin
 
7
%
 
3
%
 
6
%
Services segment expenses include cost of professional services and assigned general and administrative expenses that are not included within the “Cost of professional services” line item of our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Services revenue for fiscal 2016 decreased compared with fiscal 2015 primarily due to an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $16 million and, to a lesser extent, a decline in professional services engagements in the first half of fiscal 2016 and during fiscal 2015, partially offset by an increase in services revenue of $18 million from our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisition of Rally. Operating margin for Services increased to 7% for fiscal 2016 compared with 3% for fiscal 2015 primarily due to a decrease in personnel-related costs as a result of our prior period severance actions and a decrease in external consulting costs.
Services revenue for fiscal 2015 decreased compared with fiscal 2014 primarily as a result of a decrease in the size and number of services engagements during fiscal 2015, including non-core engagements with government customers that are not directly related to our software product sales. We have also experienced a decline in professional services engagements that are connected to new product sales, due to a decrease in our new product sales. There was also an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $6 million for fiscal 2015. Operating margin for our Services segment decreased in fiscal 2015 compared with fiscal 2014 as a result of an increase in severance costs associated with the fourth quarter of fiscal 2015 severance actions. Operating margin for our Services segment also decreased for fiscal 2015 compared with fiscal 2014 as a result of the decrease in revenue and lower utilization rates for services personnel due to the decrease in the number of services engagements.
Refer to Note 17, “Segment and Geographic Information,” in the Notes to the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information.
Bookings - Fiscal 2016 Compared with Fiscal 2015
Total Bookings: For fiscal 2016 and fiscal 2015 , total bookings were $4,247 million and $3,609 million , respectively. The increase in bookings was primarily due to an increase in renewal bookings, including the renewal with a large system integrator in excess of $500 million that occurred during the second quarter of fiscal 2016 and bookings relating to our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions. This was partially offset by an unfavorable foreign exchange effect of $133 million.
Subscription and Maintenance Bookings: For fiscal 2016 and fiscal 2015 , subscription and maintenance bookings were $3,489 million and $2,942 million , respectively. The increase in subscription and maintenance bookings was primarily attributable to an increase in renewal bookings, including the aforementioned renewal with a large system integrator.

37



Renewal Bookings:
Including the Large System Integrator: For fiscal 2016 , renewal bookings increased by a percentage in the mid-twenties compared with the year-ago period primarily due to the aforementioned renewal with a large system integrator. Excluding the unfavorable effect of foreign exchange, renewal bookings for fiscal 2016 increased by approximately 30% compared with the year-ago period. For the fourth quarter of fiscal 2016, our percentage renewal yield was in the mid 90% range. The average of the renewal yield percentage for the four quarters of fiscal 2016 was slightly above 90%.
Excluding the Large System Integrator: Excluding the large system integrator renewal, renewal bookings increased by a percentage in the low single digits for fiscal 2016 compared with the year-ago period primarily due to the increase in renewal bookings relating to our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions. Excluding the unfavorable effect of foreign exchange, renewal bookings for fiscal 2016 increased by a percentage in the high single digits compared with the year-ago period.
License Agreements over $10 million: During fiscal 2016 , we executed a total of 48 license agreements with incremental contract values in excess of $10 million each, for an aggregate contract value of $1,965 million . During fiscal 2015 , we executed a total of 51 license agreements with incremental contract values in excess of $10 million each, for an aggregate contract value of $1,448 million .
Annualized Subscription and Maintenance Bookings and Weighted Average Subscription and Maintenance License Agreement Duration in Years: For fiscal 2016 , annualized subscription and maintenance bookings increased from $908 million in the prior year period to $940 million primarily a result of the aforementioned renewal with a large system integrator. The weighted average subscription and maintenance license agreement duration in years increased from 3.24 in fiscal 2015 to 3.71 in fiscal 2016 primarily due to the aforementioned renewal with a large system integrator which had a term greater than 5 years. Although each contract is subject to terms negotiated by the respective parties, we do not expect the weighted average subscription and maintenance agreement duration in years to change materially from historical levels for end-user contracts.
Full Year Fiscal 2017 Outlook: We expect fiscal 2017 renewals to increase by a percentage in the mid-single digits compared with fiscal 2016.
Total New Product Sales: Within total bookings, total new product sales increased by a percentage in the mid-single digits for fiscal 2016 compared with the year-ago period. Excluding the unfavorable effect of foreign exchange, total new product sales increased by a percentage in the low teens. These increases were primarily due to the new sales in connection with our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions and renewals, including the aforementioned renewal with a large system integrator. Excluding our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions, total new product sales decreased by a percentage in the low-single digits for fiscal 2016 compared with the year-ago period. Excluding both the unfavorable effect of foreign exchange and second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions, total new product sales increased by a percentage in the mid-single digits for fiscal 2016 compared with the year-ago period.
Mainframe Solutions New Product Sales: For fiscal 2016 , Mainframe Solutions new product sales, including capacity, increased by a percentage in the high-teens compared with the year-ago period primarily due to the aforementioned renewal with a large system integrator and new product sales in connection with other renewals. Excluding the unfavorable effect of foreign exchange, Mainframe Solutions new product sales increased by a percentage in the mid-twenties. Overall, we expect our mainframe revenue growth to decline in a low single digit range over the medium term, which we believe is in line with the mainframe market.
Enterprise Solutions New Product Sales: For fiscal 2016 , Enterprise Solutions new product sales increased by a percentage in the low-single digits compared with the year-ago period primarily as a result of Enterprise Solutions new product sales associated with our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions. Excluding the unfavorable effect of foreign exchange, Enterprise Solutions new product sales increased by a percentage in the high single digits. Excluding our second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions, Enterprise Solutions new product sales decreased by a percentage in the high single digits for fiscal 2016 compared with the year-ago period. Excluding both the unfavorable effect of foreign exchange and second quarter fiscal 2016 acquisitions, Enterprise Solutions new product sales decreased by a percentage in the low-single digits for fiscal 2016 compared with the year-ago period. Enterprise Solutions new product sales performance was negatively affected by certain products that are more mature and not growing. However, these products positively affect segment operating margin as well as cash flow from operations.
Total Bookings by Geography: Total bookings in fiscal 2016 compared with the year-ago period increased in the United States and, to a lesser extent, increased in the Europe, Middle East and Africa region. The increase in the United States was primarily due to the aforementioned renewal with a large system integrator and bookings from our second quarter 2016 acquisitions. Total bookings in fiscal 2016 compared with the year-ago period decreased in the Asia Pacific Japan and Latin America regions.

38



New Product Sales by Geography: Total new product sales in fiscal 2016 compared with the year-ago period increased in the United States and the Latin America region. The increase in the United States was primarily due to new product sales from our second quarter 2016 acquisitions and new product sales associated with the aforementioned renewal with a large system integrator. Total new product sales decreased in the Asia Pacific Japan and Europe, Middle East and Africa regions.
Bookings - Fiscal 2015 Compared with Fiscal 2014
Total Bookings: For fiscal 2015 and fiscal 2014, total bookings were $3,609 million and $4,421 million, respectively. The decrease in bookings was primarily due to a year-over-year decrease in renewals within subscription and maintenance bookings. There was also a decline in professional services bookings for fiscal 2015 compared with fiscal 2014. This was primarily due to a decrease in the size and number of professional services engagements during fiscal 2015 in connection with lower new product sales and a reduction in non-core engagements with government customers that are not directly related to our software product sales.
Subscription and Maintenance Bookings: For fiscal 2015 and fiscal 2014, subscription and maintenance bookings were $2,942 million and $3,663 million, respectively. The decrease in subscription and maintenance bookings was primarily attributable to a decrease in our Mainframe Solutions renewals and, to a lesser extent, a decrease in our Enterprise Solutions renewals and a decrease in new product sales that are recognized within subscription and maintenance bookings.
Renewal Bookings: For fiscal 2015, renewal bookings decreased by a percentage in the low twenties compared with fiscal 2014. Excluding the unfavorable effect of foreign exchange, renewal bookings for fiscal 2015 decreased by a percentage in the high teens compared with fiscal 2014. This decrease was primarily due to two factors: (1) a four-year contract renewal with a large system integrator for more than $300 million executed during fiscal 2014; and (2) the value of contracts renewed prior to their scheduled expiration dates being lower in fiscal 2015 than we had historically experienced. For the fourth quarter of fiscal 2015, our percentage renewal yield was in the low 90% range. Our percentage renewal yield was at or above 90% for each quarter of fiscal 2015.
License Agreements over $10 million: During fiscal 2015, we executed a total of 51 license agreements with incremental contract values in excess of $10 million each, for an aggregate contract value of $1,448 million. During fiscal 2014, we executed a total of 54 license agreements with incremental contract values in excess of $10 million each, for an aggregate contract value of $1,973 million, which includes the aforementioned contract renewal with a large system integrator. The decrease in aggregate contract value in fiscal 2015 compared with fiscal 2014 was primarily attributable to the aforementioned large system integrator deal executed in fiscal 2014.
Annualized Subscription and Maintenance Bookings and Weighted Average Subscription and Maintenance License Agreement Duration in Years: For fiscal 2015, annualized subscription and maintenance bookings decreased from $1,093 million in the prior year period to $908 million. The decrease in annualized subscription and maintenance bookings was primarily a result of the lower level of renewal bookings executed during fiscal 2015 compared with fiscal 2014. The weighted average subscription and maintenance license agreement duration in years decreased from 3.35 in fiscal 2014 to 3.24 in fiscal 2015.
Total New Product Sales: Within total bookings, total new product sales decreased by a percentage in the high single digits for fiscal 2015 compared with the year-ago period. Excluding the unfavorable effect of foreign exchange, total new product sales decreased by a percentage in the mid-single digits. The decrease in total new product sales was primarily due to lower renewals as well as fewer new sales outside of renewals. Attach rates of new sales to renewals for fiscal 2015 were generally consistent with historical rates.
Mainframe Solutions New Product Sales: For fiscal 2015, mainframe solutions new sales, including capacity, declined by approximately 10% compared with the year-ago period primarily due to lower mainframe renewals. Excluding the unfavorable effect of foreign exchange, mainframe solutions new sales decreased by a percentage in the high single digits.
Enterprise Solutions New Product Sales: Enterprise solutions new product sales decreased by a percentage in the mid-single digits primarily as a result of the timing of our renewal portfolio providing fewer opportunities for new sales and weakness in selling outside the renewal opportunity. While fiscal 2015 new sales in our Named accounts increased by a percentage in the low teens, our combined Named and Growth new sales did not increase by a percentage sufficient to grow total revenue.
Total Bookings by Geography: Total bookings in fiscal 2015 compared with the year-ago period decreased in all regions, except the Asia Pacific Japan region. The decrease in the United States and the Europe, Middle East and Africa region was primarily due to the timing of our renewal portfolio and the value of contracts that renewed prior to their scheduled expiration dates in fiscal 2015 being lower than we had historically experienced. In addition, the decrease in the United States was also attributable to the aforementioned contract renewal with a large system integrator in fiscal 2014.

39



New Product Sales by Geography: Total new product sales in fiscal 2015 compared with the year-ago period decreased in the United States and the Latin America region. Total new product sales in the United States were lower primarily due to weaker sales outside renewals. Latin America total new product sales decreased primarily as a result of the macro-economic conditions within the region. Total new product sales in the Europe, Middle East and Africa region decreased slightly. Excluding the unfavorable effect of foreign exchange, total new product sales in the Europe, Middle East and Africa region increased.

Selected Quarterly Information
 
 
Fiscal 2016 Quarter Ended
 
Total (1)
 
 
June 30 (1)
 
September 30 (1)
 
December 31 (1)
 
March 31 (1)
 
 
 
(dollars in millions, except per share amounts)
Revenue
 
$
977

 
$
1,005

 
$
1,034

 
$
1,009

 
$
4,025

Percentage of annual revenue
 
24
%
 
25
%
 
26
%
 
25
%
 
100
%
Costs of licensing and maintenance
 
$
66

 
$
70

 
$
73

 
$
74

 
$
283

Cost of professional services
 
$
71

 
$
78

 
$
75

 
$
76

 
$
300

Amortization of capitalized software costs
 
$
60

 
$
67

 
$
65

 
$
64

 
$
256

Income from continuing operations
 
$
207

 
$
172

 
$
219

 
$
171

 
$
769

Basic income per common share from continuing operations
 
$
0.47

 
$
0.39

 
$
0.52

 
$
0.41

 
$
1.79

Diluted income per common share from continuing operations
 
$
0.47

 
$
0.39

 
$
0.52

 
$
0.41

 
$
1.78

 
 
Fiscal 2015 Quarter Ended
 
Total (1)
 
 
June 30 (1)
 
September 30 (1)
 
December 31 (1)
 
March 31 (1)
 
 
 
(dollars in millions, except per share amounts)
Revenue
 
$
1,069

 
$
1,079

 
$
1,091

 
$
1,023

 
$
4,262

Percentage of annual revenue
 
25
%
 
25
%
 
26
%
 
24
%
 
100
%
Costs of licensing and maintenance
 
$
72

 
$
71

 
$
74

 
$
80

 
$
297

Cost of professional services
 
$
81

 
$
88

 
$
84

 
$
85

 
$
338

Amortization of capitalized software costs
 
$
67

 
$
75

 
$
62

 
$
69

 
$
273

Income from continuing operations
 
$
212

 
$
235

 
$
218

 
$
145

 
$
810

Basic income per common share from continuing operations
 
$
0.48

 
$
0.53

 
$
0.49

 
$
0.33

 
$
1.83

Diluted income per common share from continuing operations
 
$
0.48

 
$
0.53

 
$
0.49

 
$
0.33

 
$
1.82

(1)
Information presented excludes the results of our discontinued operations.

Liquidity and Capital Resources
Our cash and cash equivalent balances are held in numerous locations throughout the world, with 76% held in our subsidiaries outside the United States at March 31, 2016 . Cash and cash equivalents totaled $2,812 million at March 31, 2016 , representing an increase of $8 million from the March 31, 2015 balance of $2,804 million . During fiscal 2016 , there was a $24 million favorable translation effect from foreign exchange rates on cash held outside the United States in currencies other than the U.S. dollar.

40



Although 76% of our cash and cash equivalents is held by foreign subsidiaries, we currently neither intend nor expect a need to repatriate these funds to the United States in the foreseeable future. We expect existing domestic cash, cash equivalents, cash flows from operations and borrowings to be sufficient to fund our domestic operating activities and our investing and financing activities, including, among other things, the payment of regular quarterly dividends, compliance with our debt repayment schedules, repurchases of our common stock and the funding of capital expenditures, for at least the next 12 months and for the foreseeable future thereafter. In addition, we expect existing foreign cash, cash equivalents and cash flows from foreign operations to be sufficient to fund our foreign operating activities and investing activities, including, among other things, the funding of capital expenditures, acquisitions and research and development, for at least the next 12 months and for the foreseeable future thereafter.
Sources and Uses of Cash
Under our subscription and maintenance agreements, customers generally make installment payments over the term of the agreement, often with at least one payment due at contract execution, for the right to use our software products and receive product support, software fixes and new products when available. The timing and actual amounts of cash received from committed customer installment payments under any specific agreement can be affected by several factors, including the time value of money and the customer’s credit rating. Often, the amount received is the result of direct negotiations with the customer when establishing pricing and payment terms. In certain instances, the customer negotiates a price for a single up-front installment payment and seeks its own internal or external financing sources. In other instances, we may assist the customer by arranging financing on the customer's behalf through a third-party financial institution. Alternatively, we may decide to transfer our rights to the future committed installment payments due under the license agreement to a third-party financial institution in exchange for a cash payment. Once transferred, the future committed installments are payable by the customer to the third-party financial institution. Whether the future committed installments have been financed directly by the customer with our assistance or by the transfer of our rights to future committed installments to a third party, these financing agreements may contain limited recourse provisions with respect to our continued performance under the license agreements. Based on our historical experience, we believe that any liability that we may incur as a result of these limited recourse provisions will be immaterial.
Amounts billed or collected as a result of a single installment for the entire contract value, or a substantial portion of the contract value, rather than being invoiced and collected over the life of the license agreement, are reflected in the liability section of our Consolidated Balance Sheets as “Deferred revenue (billed or collected).” Amounts received from either a customer or a third-party financial institution that are attributable to later years of a license agreement have a positive impact on billings and cash provided by operating activities in the current period. Accordingly, to the extent these collections are attributable to the later years of a license agreement, billings and cash provided by operating activities during the license’s later years will be lower than if the payments were received over the license term. We are unable to predict with certainty the amount of cash to be collected from single installments for the entire contract value, or a substantial portion of the contract value, under new or renewed license agreements to be executed in future periods.
For fiscal 2016 , gross receipts related to single installments for the entire contract value, or a substantial portion of the contract value, were $421 million compared with $514 million in fiscal 2015 .
In any quarter, we may receive payments in advance of the contractually committed date on which the payments were otherwise due. In limited circumstances, we may offer discounts to customers to ensure payment in the current period of invoices that have been billed, but might not otherwise be paid until a subsequent period because of payment terms. Historically, any such discounts have not been material.
Amounts due from customers from our subscription licenses are offset by deferred revenue related to these license agreements, leaving no or minimal net carrying value on our Consolidated Balance Sheets for those amounts. The fair value of these amounts may exceed or be less than this carrying value but cannot be practically assessed since there is no existing market for a pool of customer receivables with contractual commitments similar to those owned by us. The actual fair value may not be known until these amounts are sold, securitized or collected. Although these customer license agreements commit the customer to payment under a fixed schedule, to the extent amounts are not yet due and payable by the customer, the agreements are considered executory in nature due to our ongoing commitment to provide maintenance and unspecified future software products as part of the agreement terms.
We can estimate the total amounts to be billed from committed contracts, referred to as our “billings backlog,” and the total amount to be recognized as revenue from committed contracts, referred to as our “revenue backlog.” The aggregate amounts of our billings backlog and trade receivables already reflected in our Consolidated Balance Sheets represent the amounts we expect to collect in the future from committed contracts.

41



 
 
March 31, 2016 (1)
 
March 31, 2015 (1)
 
 
(in millions)
Billings backlog:
 
 
 
 
Amounts to be billed — current
 
$
1,818

 
$
1,867

Amounts to be billed — noncurrent
 
2,077

 
1,686

Total billings backlog
 
$
3,895

 
$
3,553

Revenue backlog:
 
 
 
 
Revenue to be recognized within the next 12 months — current
 
$
3,113

 
$
3,141

Revenue to be recognized beyond the next 12 months — noncurrent
 
3,716

 
3,389

Total revenue backlog
 
$
6,829

 
$
6,530

Deferred revenue (billed or collected)
 
$
2,934

 
$
2,977

Total billings backlog
 
3,895

 
3,553

Total revenue backlog
 
$
6,829

 
$
6,530

(1)
Information presented excludes the results of our discontinued operations.
Note: Revenue backlog includes deferred subscription and maintenance, professional services and software fees and other revenue.
We can also estimate the total cash to be collected in the future from committed contracts, referred to as our “Expected future cash collections,” by adding the total billings backlog to the trade accounts receivable, which represent amounts already billed but not collected, from our Consolidated Balance Sheets.
 
 
March 31, 2016 (1)
 
March 31, 2015 (1)
 
 
(in millions)
Expected future cash collections:
 
 
 
 
Total billings backlog
 
$
3,895

 
$
3,553

Trade accounts receivable, net
 
625

 
652

Total expected future cash collections
 
$
4,520

 
$
4,205

(1)
Information presented excludes the results of our discontinued operations.
The increase in billings backlog at March 31, 2016 compared with March 31, 2015 was primarily a result of the renewal with a large system integrator in excess of $500 million that occurred during the second quarter of fiscal 2016. There was an increase of 10% in billings backlog at March 31, 2016 compared with March 31, 2015. Excluding the favorable effect of foreign exchange, billings backlog increased 9% at March 31, 2016 compared with March 31, 2015 .
The increase in expected future cash collections at March 31, 2016 compared with March 31, 2015 was primarily driven by the increase in billings backlog, as described above, partially offset by a decrease in trade accounts receivable, net.
The increase in total revenue backlog at March 31, 2016 compared with March 31, 2015 was primarily a result of the aforementioned renewal with the large system integrator. There was an increase in total revenue backlog of 5% at March 31, 2016 compared with March 31, 2015. Excluding the favorable effect of foreign exchange, total revenue backlog increased 4% at March 31, 2016 compared with March 31, 2015 .
Our current revenue backlog, which is our revenue to be recognized within the next 12 months, decreased 1% at March 31, 2016 compared with March 31, 2015 due to the timing of large deals within the renewal portfolio, partially offset by an increase in SaaS bookings from Rally. Our current revenue backlog will be negatively affected for contracts within 12 months of their renewal dates. Given the timing of our renewal portfolio, we expect our fiscal 2017 renewals to increase by a percentage in the mid-single digits.
Generally, we believe that a change in the current portion of revenue backlog on a year-over-year basis is an indicator of future subscription and maintenance revenue performance due to the high percentage of our revenue that is recognized from license agreements that are already committed and being recognized ratably. We also believe that we would need to demonstrate multiple quarters of total new product and capacity sales growth while maintaining a renewal yield in the low 90% range before growth in the current portion of revenue backlog would be likely to occur.
Unbilled amounts relating to subscription and maintenance licenses are mostly collectible over a period of one-to-five years and at March 31, 2016 , on a cumulative basis, 47%, 77%, 89%, 96% and 100% come due within fiscal 2017 through 2021 , respectively.

42



Cash Provided by Operating Activities
 
Year Ended March 31,
 
$ Change
 
2016 (1)
 
2015 (1)
 
2014 (1)
 
2016 / 2015
 
2015 / 2014
 
(in millions)
Cash collections from billings (2)
$
4,229

 
$
4,515

 
$
4,653

 
$
(286
)
 
$
(138
)
Vendor disbursements and payroll (2)
(2,773
)
 
(2,960
)
 
(3,025
)
 
187

 
65

Income tax payments, net
(365
)
 
(411
)
 
(489
)
 
46

 
78

Other disbursements, net (3)
(57
)
 
(114
)
 
(166
)
 
57

 
52

Net cash provided by continuing operating activities
$
1,034

 
$
1,030

 
$
973

 
$
4

 
$
57

(1)
Information presented excludes the results of our discontinued operations.
(2)
Amounts include value added taxes and sales taxes.
(3)
For fiscal 2016, amount includes $5 million of payments associated with the Fiscal 2014 Plan, interest, prior period restructuring plans and miscellaneous receipts and disbursements. For fiscal 2015, amount includes $66 million of payments associated with the Fiscal 2014 Plan, interest, prior period restructuring plans and miscellaneous receipts and disbursements. For fiscal 2014, amount includes $105 million of payments associated with the Fiscal 2014 Plan, interest, prior period restructuring plans and miscellaneous receipts and disbursements.
Fiscal 2016 versus Fiscal 2015
Operating Activities
Net cash provided by continuing operating activities for fiscal 2016 was $1,034 million , representing an increase of $4 million compared with fiscal 2015 . Net cash provided by continuing operating activities increased slightly due to lower disbursements, lower payments associated with our Fiscal 2014 Plan and lower income tax payments, net, offset by a decrease in cash collections from billings, which included lower single installment payments. There was an overall unfavorable effect from foreign exchange of $82 million on net cash provided by continuing operating activities.
Investing Activities
Net cash used in investing activities from continuing operations for fiscal 2016 was $645 million compared with $91 million for fiscal 2015 . The increase in net cash used in investing activities compared with the year-ago period was primarily due to the increase in cash paid for acquisitions and purchased software of $610 million, partially offset by proceeds of $48 million from the sale of short-term investments, which were received from the acquisition of Rally during the second quarter of fiscal 2016.
Financing Activities
Net cash used in financing activities from continuing operations for fiscal 2016 was $443 million compared with $977 million for fiscal 2015 . The decrease in net cash used in financing activities was primarily due to the $1.1 billion of debt borrowings, which consisted of the following: (1) our July 2015 borrowing under our revolving credit facility of $400 million in connection with the acquisition of Rally; (2) our August 2015 borrowing from our 3.600% Senior Notes due August 2020 of $400 million; and (3) our October 2015 borrowing under our Term Loan of $300 million. In addition, there was a decrease in debt repayments of $99 million and a decrease in dividends paid of $15 million compared with the year-ago period. These financing activities were partially offset by the increase in common shares repurchased of $492 million, which was primarily due to our share repurchase arrangement with Careal, the decrease in net borrowings from our notional pooling arrangement of $142 million, the decrease in other financing activities of $24 million, which were due to payments associated with prior year acquisitions, and the decrease in cash received from exercises of stock options of $18 million compared with the year-ago period.
Refer to the “Debt Arrangements” table below for additional information about our debt balances at March 31, 2016 .
Fiscal 2015 versus Fiscal 2014
Operating Activities